Scaffold-free, Label-free, and Nozzle-free Magnetic Levitational Bioassembler for Rapid Formative Biofabrication of 3D Tissues and Organs

Vladislav A. Parfenov, Stanislav V. Petrov, Frederico D. A. S. Pereira, Aleksandr A. Levin, Elizaveta V. Koudan, Pavel A. Karalkin, Mikhail M. Vasiliev, Oleg F. Petrov, Vladimir S Komlev, Yusef D. Khesuani, Vladimir Mironov

Article ID: 304
Vol 6, Issue 3, 2020, Article identifier:304

VIEWS - 300 (Abstract) 94 (PDF)


Scaffolding is the conceptual framework of conventional tissue engineering. Over the past decade, scaffold-free approaches as a potential alternative to classic scaffold-based methods have emerged, and scaffold-free magnetic levitational tissue engineering (magnetic force-based tissue engineering [Mag-TE]) is a type of this novel tissue engineering strategy. However, Mag-TE is often based on the use of potentially toxic magnetic nanoparticles. Scaffold-free and label-free magnetic levitational bioassembly do not employ magnetic nanoparticles and thus, the potential toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles can be avoided. In this short review, we describe the conceptual foundation of scaffold-free, label-free, and nozzle-free formative biofabrication using magnetic fields as “scaffields.” The design and implementation of “Organ.Aut,” the first commercial magnetic levitational bioassembler, and the potential applications of magnetic bioassembler are discussed as well.


Magnetic levitation, Bioassembler, Formative biofabrication, Tissue spheroids, Scaffield

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