Using Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing (LSAM) as a Bridge Manufacturing Process in Response to Shortages in PPE During the COVID-19 Outbreak

Elizabeth Grace Bishop, Simon James Leigh

Article ID: 281
Vol 6, Issue 4, 2020, Pages

VIEWS - 152 (Abstract) 29 (PDF)

Abstract


The global COVID-19 pandemic has led to an international shortage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), with traditional supply chains unable to cope with the significant demand leading to critical shortfalls. A number of open and crowd sourced initiatives have sought to address this shortfall by producing equipment such as protective face shields using additive manufacturing techniques such as Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). This paper reports the process of designing and manufacturing protective face shields using Large-scale Additive Manufacturing (LSAM) to produce the major thermoplastic components of the face shield. LSAM offers significant advantages over other Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies in bridge manufacturing scenarios as a true transition between prototypes and mass production techniques such as injection moulding. In the context of production of COVID-19 face shields, the ability to produce the optimised components in under five minutes compared to what would typically take one to two hours using another AM technologies meant that significant production volume could be achieved rapidly with minimal staffing.


Keywords


Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing; COVID-19; Coronavirus; Face Shield; PPE

Full Text:

PDF

References


References

J. Riou and C. L. Althaus, "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020," Euro Surveill, vol. 25, no. 4, Jan 2020, doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058.

C. I. Paules, H. D. Marston, and A. S. Fauci, "Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common Cold," JAMA, Jan 23 2020, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0757.

Q. Li, X. Guan, P. Wu, X. Wang, L. Zhou, Y. Tong, R. Ren, K.S. Leung, E.H. Lau, J.Y. Wong and X. Xing "Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia," N Engl J Med, vol. 382, no. 13, pp. 1199-1207, Mar 26 2020, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.

World Health Organization, "WHO Virtual Press Conference on COVID-19," 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/transcripts/who-audio-emergencies-coronavirus-press-conference-22apr2020.pdf?sfvrsn=4f8821b6_2.

World Health Organisation, "Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 112.," 2020.

Y. Liu, A. A. Gayle, A. Wilder-Smith, and J. Rocklov, "The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus," J Travel Med, vol. 27, no. 2, Mar 13 2020, doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa021.

A. Ather, B. Patel, N. B. Ruparel, A. Diogenes, and K. M. Hargreaves, "Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for Clinical Dental Care," J Endod, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 584-595, May 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.03.008.

Y. Bai, L. Yao, T. Wei, F. Tian, D.Y. Jin, L. Chen and M. Wang, "Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19," JAMA, Feb 21 2020, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2565.

W. H. Organization, "Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)," 2020.

World Health Organization, "Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations," Intensive Care Med, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 854-887, May 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5.

E. Livingston, A. Desai, and M. Berkwits, "Sourcing personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic.," JAMA, 2020.

E. Larrañeta, J. Dominguez-Robles, and D. A. Lamprou, "Additive Manufacturing Can Assist in the Fight Against COVID-19 and Other Pandemics and Impact on the Global Supply Chain," 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, 2020, doi: 10.1089/3dp.2020.0106.

S. T. Flanagan and D. H. Ballard, "3D Printed Face Shields: A Community Response to the COVID-19 Global Pandemic," Acad Radiol, Apr 17 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2020.04.020.

W. Phillips, N. Medcalf, K. Dalgamo, H. Makatoris , "Redistributed Manufacturing in Healthcare: Creating New Value through Disruptive Innovation," 2017, doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.11461.14567.

H. Tardieu, D. Daly, J. Esteban-Lauzán, J. Hall, and G. Miller, "Case Study 6: The digital Transformation of Manufacturing," in Deliberately Digital: Springer, 2020, pp. 269-280.

B. Redwood, F. Schöffer, and B. Garret, The 3D Printing Handbook. 2017.

E3D Blog, E3D, [Online]. Available: https://e3d-online.com/blog/2019/02/28/supervolcano/. viewed May 13, 2020

B. K. Post, P.C Chesser, R.F. Lind, A. Roschli, L.J. Love, K.T. Gaul, M. Sallas, F. Blue and S. Wu, "Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing to directly manufacture a boat hull mould," Virtual and Physical Prototyping, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 123-129, 2018, doi: 10.1080/17452759.2018.1532798.

V. Kunc, A. A. Hassen, J. Lindahl, S. Kim, B. Post, and L. Love, "LARGE SCALE ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED TOOLING FOR COMPOSITES," 2017.

B. K. Post, B. Richardson, R. Lind, L. J. Love, P. Lloyd, V. Kunc, B. J. Rhyne, A. Roschli, J. Hannan, S. Nolet, K. Veloso, P. Kurup, T. Remo, and D. Jenne, “BIG AREA ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING APPLICATION IN WIND TURBINE MOLDS," in Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 2017.

D. Moreno Nieto, V. Casal López, and S. I. Molina, "Large-format polymeric pellet-based additive manufacturing for the naval industry," Additive Manufacturing, vol. 23, pp. 79-85, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.07.012.

A. Murat, "Additive Manufacturing: Is It a New Era for Furniture Production?," Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, vol. 5, no. 6, 2015, doi: 10.17265/2159-5275/2015.06.002.

"Continuous CF bike frame," Reinforced Plastics, vol. 63, no. 4, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.repl.2019.06.043.

R. Devicharan and R. Garg, "Optimization of the Print Quality by Controlling the Process Parameters on 3D Printing Machine," in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Technologies Singapore: Springer, 2019, pp. 187-194.

M. Galatia. P. Minetola, G. Marchiandi, E. Atzeni, F. Calignano, A. Salmi and L.Luliano , "A methodology for evaluating the aesthetic quality of 3D printed part," Procedia CIRP, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 95-100, 2019.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v6i4.281

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Elizabeth Grace Bishop, Simon James Leigh

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.