Open Journal Systems





Cover Image

Additive manufacturing of bone scaffolds

VIEWS - 429 (Abstract) 310 (PDF)
Youwen Yang, Guoyong Wang, Huixin Liang, Chengde Gao, Shuping Peng, Lida Shen, Cijun Shuai

Abstract


Additive manufacturing (AM) can obtain not only customized external shape but also porous internal structure for scaffolds, both of which are of great importance for repairing large segmental bone defects. The scaffold fabrication process generally involves scaffold design, AM, and post-treatments. Thus, this article firstly reviews the state-of-the-art of scaffold design, including computer-aided design, reverse modeling, topology optimization, and mathematical modeling. In addition, the current characteristics of several typical AM techniques, including selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling (FDM), and electron beam melting (EBM), especially their advantages and limitations are presented. In particular, selective laser sintering is able to obtain scaffolds with nanoscale grains, due to its high heating rate and a short holding time. However, this character usually results in insufficient densification. FDM can fabricate scaffolds with a relative high accuracy of pore structure but with a relative low mechanical strength. EBM with a high beam-material coupling efficiency can process high melting point metals, but it exhibits a low-resolution and poor surface quality. Furthermore, the common post-treatments, with main focus on heat and surface treatments, which are applied to improve the comprehensive performance are also discussed. Finally, this review also discusses the future directions for AM scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gao C, Peng S, Feng P, et al., 2017, Bone biomaterials and

interactions with stem cells. Bone Res., 5(4): 17059.

Currey J D, 2012, The structure and mechanics of bone.

J. Mater. Sci., 47(1): 41–54.

Heuijerjans A, Wilson W, Ito K, et al., 2017, The critical size

of focal articular cartilage defects is associated with strains in

the collagen fibers. Clin Biomech, 50: 40.

Yang Y, Wu P, Wang Q, et al., 2016, The enhancement of

Mg corrosion resistance by alloying Mn and laser–melting.

Materials, 9(4): 216.

Hoover S, Tarafder S, Bandyopadhyay A, et al., 2017,

Silver doped resorbable tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for

bone graft applications. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl,

: 763–769.

Faroni A, Mobasseri S A, Kingham P J, et al., 2015,

Peripheral nerve regeneration: Experimental strategies and

future perspectives. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 82–83: 160–167.

Shau D, Patton R, Patel S, et al., 2018, Synthetic mesh vs.

Allograft extensor mechanism reconstruction in total knee

arthroplasty – A systematic review of the literature and meta–

analysis. Knee, 25(1): 2.

Wang Z, Wang C, Li C, et al., 2017, Analysis of factors

influencing bone ingrowth into three–dimensional printed porous

metal scaffolds: Areview. J Alloys Compd, 717: 271–285.

Kumar A, Mandal S, Barui S, et al., 2016, Low temperature

additive manufacturing of three dimensional scaffolds for

bone–tissue engineering applications: Processing related

challenges and property assessment. Mater Sci Eng R,

: 1–39.

Chevalier E, Chulia D, Pouget C, et al., 2008, Fabrication of

porous substrates: A review of processes using pore forming

agents in the biomaterial field. J Pharm Sci, 97(3): 1135–1154.

Pia G, Casnedi L, Ionta M, et al., 2015, On the elastic

deformation properties of porous ceramic materials obtained by

pore–forming agent method. Ceram Int, 41(9): 11097–11105.

Moghadam M Z, Hassanajili S, Esmaeilzadeh F, et al.,

, Formation of porous HPCL/LPCL/HA scaffolds with

supercritical CO2 gas foaming method. J Mech Behav Biomed

Mater, 69: 115.

Costantini M, Colosi C, Mozetic P, et al., 2016, Correlation

between porous texture and cell seeding efficiency of gas

foaming and microfluidic foaming scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng

C Mater Biol Appl, 62: 668–677.

Theodorou G S, Eleana K, Anna T, et al., 2016, Sol–Gel

derived Mg–based ceramic scaffolds doped with zinc or copper

ions: Preliminary results on their synthesis, characterization,

and biocompatibility. Int J Biomater, 2016(1–2): 3858301.

Ros–Tárraga P, Murciano A, Mazón P, et al., 2017, New 3D

stratified Si–Ca–P porous scaffolds obtained by sol–gel and

polymer replica method: Microstructural, mineralogical and

chemical characterization. Ceram Int, 43(8): 6548–6553.

International Journal of Bioprinting (2019)–Volume 5, Issue 1

Abdkhorsand S, Sabersamandari S, 2017, Development of

nanocomposite scaffolds based on TiO2 doped in grafted

chitosan/hydroxyapatite by freeze drying method and evaluation

of biocompatibility. Int J Biol Macromol, 101: 51–58.

Fereshteh Z, Fathi M, Bagri A, et al., 2016, Preparation and

characterization of aligned porous PCL/zein scaffolds as drug

delivery systems via improved unidirectional freeze–drying

method. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 68: 613–622.

Janik H M, 2015, A review: Fabrication of porous polyurethane

scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 48: 586.

Bose S, Ke D, Sahasrabudhe H, et al., 2017, Additive

manufacturing of biomaterials. Prog Mater Sci, 93:1-310.

Parthasarathy J, 2014, 3D modeling, custom implants and its

future perspectives in craniofacial surgery. Ann Maxillofac

Surg, 4(1): 9.

Jardini A L, Larosa M A, Bernardes L F, et al., 2014,

Customised titanium implant fabricated in additive

manufacturing for craniomaxillofacial surgery. Virtual Phys

Prototyp, 9(2): 115–125.

Avaliable from: http://www.csiro.au/en/News/News–releases/

/3D–Heel–In–World–First–Surgery2014.

Song W, Chen L, Seta J, et al., 2017, Corona discharge:

A novel approach to fabricate three–dimensional electrospun

nanofibers. Acs Biomater Sci Eng, 3(6): 1146–1153.

Hollister S J, Flanagan C L, Morrison R J, et al., 2016,

Integrating image–based design and 3D biomaterial printing

to create patient specific devices within a design control

framework for clinical translation. Acs Biomater Sci Eng,

(10): 1658-1661.

Shuai C, Guo W, Gao C, et al., 2018, An nMgO containing

scaffold: Antibacterial activity, degradation properties and

cell responses. Int J Bioprint, 4(1): 34-578.

He J, Xu F, Dong R, et al., 2017, Electrohydrodynamic 3D

printing of microscale poly (ε–caprolactone) scaffolds with

multi–walled carbon nanotubes. Biofabrication, 9(1): 15007.

Guvendiren M, Molde J, Soares R, et al., 2016, Designing

biomaterials for 3D printing. Acs Biomater Sci Eng, 2(10):

–1693.

Calignano F, 2014, Design optimization of supports for

overhanging structures in aluminum and titanium alloys by

selective laser melting. Mater Design, 64(9): 203–213.

Yan R, Luo D, Huang H, et al., 2018, Electron beam melting

in the fabrication of three–dimensional mesh titanium

mandibular prosthesis scaffold. Sci Rep, 8(1): 750.

Yu G Z, Chou D T, Hong D, et al., 2017, Biomimetic rotated

lamellar plywood motifs by additive manufacturing of metal

alloy scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Acs Biomater Sci

Eng, 3(4): 649–657.

Feng J, Fu J, Shang C, et al., 2018, Porous scaffold design by

solid T–splines and triply periodic minimal surfaces. Comput

Methods Appl Mech Eng, 336, 333–352.

Probst F A, Hutmacher D W, Müller D F, et al., 2010,

Calvarial reconstruction by customized bioactive implant.

Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir, 42(6): 369.

Naing M W, Chua C K, Leong K F, et al., 2005, Fabrication

of customised scaffolds using computer-aided design and

rapid prototyping techniques. Rapid Prototyp J, 11(4): 249–

Ovsianikov A, Deiwick A, Vlierberghe S V, et al., 2011,

Laser fabrication of three–dimensional CAD scaffolds from

photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering.

Biomacromolecules, 12(4): 851–858.

Yu K M, Chiu W K, Yeung Y C, 2006, Toolpath generation

for layer manufacturing of fractal objects. Rapid Prototyp J,

(4): 214–221.

Sing S L, Wiria F Eand Yeong W Y, 2018, Selective laser

melting of lattice structures: A statistical approach to

manufacturability and mechanical behavior. Robot Comput

Integr Manuf, 49: 170–180.

Duan B, Cheung W, Land W M, 2011, Optimized fabrication

of Ca–P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds via selective laser

sintering for bone tissue engineering. Biofabrication, 3(1):

Melchels F P, Bertoldi K, Gabbrielli R, et al., 2010,

Mathematically defined tissue engineering scaffold

architectures prepared by stereolithography. Biomaterials,

(27): 6909.

Sercombe T B, Xu X, Challis V J, et al., 2015, Failure modes

in high strength and stiffness to weight scaffolds produced by

selective laser melting. Mater Des, 67: 501–508.

Murr L E, Gaytan S M, Medina F, et al., 2010, Next–

generation biomedical implants using additive manufacturing

of complex, cellular and functional mesh arrays. Philos

Trans, 368(1917): 1999.

Cheah C M, Chua C K, Leong K F, et al., 2004, Automatic

algorithm for generating complex polyhedral scaffold

structures for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng, 10(4): 595–610.

Lu G, Xu S, Yan Q S, et al., 2013, Study on dimension change

law from CAD model to prototype of rapid investment

casting based on selective laser sintering. Adv Mater Res,

–776(774–776): 1046–1050.

Florczyk S J, Simon M, Juba D, et al., 2017, A bioinformatics

D cellular morphotyping strategy for assessing biomaterial

scaffold niches. Acs Biomater Sci Eng, 3(10): 2302-2313.

Shuai C

Kerativitayanan P, Tatullo M, Khariton M, et al., 2017,

Nanoengineered osteoinductive and elastomeric scaffolds

for bone tissue engineering. Acs Biomater Sci Eng,

(4): 590–600.

Thomas R C, Vu P, Shan P M, et al., 2017, Sacrificial crystal

templated hyaluronic acid hydrogels as biomimetic 3D tissue

scaffolds for nerve tissue regeneration. Acs Biomater Sci Eng,

(7): 1172–1174.

Altamimi A A, Fernandes P R A, Peach C, et al., 2017,

Metallic bone fixation implants: A novel design approach

for reducing the stress shielding phenomenon. Virtual Phys

Prototyp, 12(2): 141–151.

Osanov J K, 2016, Topology optimization for architected

materials design. Ann Rev Mater Res, 46(1): 211–233.

Guest J Kand Prévost J H, 2007, Design of maximum

permeability material structures. Comput Methods Appl Mech

Eng, 196(4–6): 1006–1017.

Guest J, Kand P J, 2006, Optimizing multifunctional materials:

Design of microstructures for maximized stiffness and fluid

permeability. Int J Solids Struct, 43(22): 7028–7047.

Sturm S, Zhou S, Mai Y W, et al., 2010, On stiffness of

scaffolds for bone tissue engineering – A numerical study.

J Biomech, 43(9): 1738–1744.

Huang, X X, 2010, Evolutionary Topology Optimization of

Continuum Structures: Methods and Applications. Hoboken,

New Jersey: Wiley.

Huang X, Xie Y M, 2011, Topological design of

microstructures of cellular materials for maximum bulk or

shear modulus. Comput Mater Sci, 50(6): 1861–1870.

Osher S, Sethian J A, 1988, Fronts propagating with

curvature–dependent speed: Algorithms based on Hamilton–

Jacobi formulations. J Comput Phys, 79(1): 12–49.

Li Q Z, 2008, A Variational Level set Method for the Topology

Optimization of Steady–State Navier–Stokes Flow. USA:

Academic Press Professional, Inc.

Challis V, Guest J K, 2010, Level set topology optimization

of fluids in stokes flow. Int J Num Methods Eng, 79(10):

–1308.

Takezawa A, Kobashi M, Takezawa A, et al., 2017, Design

methodology for porous composites with tunable thermal

expansion produced by multi–material topology optimization

and additive manufacturing. Compos Part B Eng, 131: 1-283.

Hollister S J, Levy R A, Chu T M, et al., 2000, An image–

based approach for designing and manufacturing craniofacial

scaffolds. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 29(1): 67–71.

Giannitelli S M, Accoto D, Trombetta M, et al., 2014, Current

trends in the design of scaffolds for computer – Aided tissue

engineering. Acta Biomater, 10(2): 580–594.

Sun W, Starly B, Nam J, et al., 2005, Bio–CAD modeling

and its applications in computer–aided tissue engineering.

Comput Aided Des, 37(11): 1097–1114.

Hollister S J, Chu T M, Guldberg R E, et al., 2002, Image

Based Design and Manufacture of Scaffolds for Bone

Reconstruction. IUTAM Symposium on Synthesis in Bio

Solid Mechanics. pp163-174.

Hollister S J, 2005, Porous scaffold design for tissue

engineering. Nat Mater, 4(7): 518–524.

Podshivalov L, Gomes C M, Zocca A, et al., 2013, Design,

analysis and additive manufacturing of porous structures for

biocompatible micro–scale scaffolds -. Procedia Cirp, 5(1):

–252.

Meyer U, Runte C, Dirksen D, et al., 2003, Image–Based

Biomimetric Approach to Design and Fabrication of Tissue

Engineered Bone. Cars 2003. Computer Assisted Radiology

and Surgery. Proceedings of the International Congress and

Exhibition, London. pp726–732.

Pattanayak D K, Fukuda A, Matsushita T, et al., 2011,

Bioactive ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone:

Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical

treatments. Acta Biomater, 7(3): 1398–1406.

Terasaki O, 2005, Band structure of the P, D, and G surfaces.

Phys Rev B, 72(8):085459.

Lai M, Kulak A N, Law D, et al., 2007, Profiting from nature:

macroporous copper with superior mechanical properties.

Chem Commun, 34(34): 3547–3549.

Robb R A, 2005, Schwarz Meets Schwann: Design and

Fabrication of Biomorphic and Durataxic Tissue Engineering

Scaffolds. Palm Springs, CA, USA: Medical Image

Computing and Computer–assisted Intervention–miccai,

International Conference. pp794–801.

Kapfer S C, Hyde S T, Mecke K, et al., 2011, Minimal surface

scaffold designs for tissue engineering. Biomaterials, 32(29):

–6882.

Melchels F W, Barradas A M, Blitterswijk C A, et al., 2010,

Effects of the architecture of tissue engineering scaffolds on

cell seeding and culturing. Acta Biomater, 6(11): 4208–4217.

Yang N, Quan Z, Zhang D, et al., 2014, Multi–morphology

transition hybridization CAD design of minimal surface

porous structures for use in tissue engineering. Comput Aided

Des, 56(11): 11–21.

Yang N, Wang S, Gao L, et al., 2017, Building implicit–

surface–based composite porous architectures. Compos

Struct, 173: 35–43.

Zhou K Y, 2014, Effective method for multi–scale gradient

porous scaffold design and fabrication. Mater Sci Eng C

Mater Biol Appl, 43: 502–505.

Yang N, Zhang D T, 2015, Novel real function based method

to construct heterogeneous porous scaffolds and additive

manufacturing for use in medical engineering. Med Eng

Phys, 37(11): 1037–1046.

Yang N, Du C F, Wang S, et al., 2016, Mathematically defined

gradient porous materials. Mater Lett, 173: 136–140.

Yoo D J, 2011, Porous scaffold design using the distance field

and triply periodic minimal surface models. Biomaterials,

(31): 7741.

Yoo D J, 2013, Heterogeneous porous scaffold design using

the continuous transformations of triply periodic minimal

surface models. Int J Precis Eng Manuf, 14(10): 1743–1753.

Yoo D, Kim K H, 2015, An advanced multi–morphology

porous scaffold design method using volumetric distance

field and beta growth function. Int J Precis Eng Manuf, 16(9):

–2032.

Yang N, Zhou K G, 2015, Simple method to generate and

fabricate stochastic porous scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng C,

: 444–450.

Roberts A, Garboczi E J, 2001, Elastic moduli of model

random three–dimensional closed–cell cellular solids. Acta

Mater, 49(2): 189–197.

Okabe A, Boots B, Sugihara K, et al., 2001, Spatial

Tessellations: Concepts and Applications of Voronoi

Diagrams. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kou X, Tan S T, 2010, A simple and effective geometric

representation for irregular porous structure modeling.

Comput Aided Des, 42(10): 930–941.

Kou X Y, Tan S T, 2012, Microstructural modelling of

functionally graded materials using stochastic voronoi

diagram and B–Spline representations. Int J Comput Integr

Manuf, 25(2): 177–188.

Chow H N, Tan S T, Sze W S, 2007, Layered modeling of

porous structures with voronoi diagrams. Comput Aided Des

Appl, 4(1–4): 321–330.

Fantini M, Curto M, Crescenzio F D, 2016, A method to

design biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

based on voronoi lattices. Virtual Phys Prototyp,

(2): 77–90.

Curto M F, 2017, Interactive design and manufacturing of a

voronoi–based biomimetic bone scaffold for morphological

characterization. Int J Interact Des Manuf, 6: 1–12.

Gómez S, Vlad M D, López J, et al., 2016, Design and

properties of 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Acta

Biomater, 42: 341–350.

Wang G, Shen L, Zhao J, et al., 2018, Design and compressive

behavior of controllable irregular porous scaffolds: Based on

voronoi–tessellation and for additive manufacturing. Acs

Biomater Sci Eng, 4(2): 719–727.

Tumbleston J R, Shirvanyants D, Ermoshkin N, et al.,

, Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

Science, 347(6228): 1349–1352.

Xing J–F, Zheng M–Land Duan X–M, 2015, Two–photon

polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: an advanced

D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug

delivery. Chemical Society Reviews, 44(15): 5031–5039.

Yu T, Richards D J, Trusk T C, et al., 2014, 3D Printing

facilitated scaffold–free tissue unit fabrication. Biofabrication,

(2): 24111.

Pourchet L J, Thepot A, Albouy M, et al., 2016, Human skin

D bioprinting using scaffold–free approach. Adv Healthc

Mater, 6(4): 1601101.

Cervera G B, Lombera G, 1999, Numerical prediction of

temperature and density distributions in selective laser

sintering processes. Rapid Prototyp J, 5(1): 21–26.

Gu D C, 2016, Effect of metallurgical defect and phase

transition on geometric accuracy and wear resistance of iron–

based parts fabricated by selective laser melting. J Mater Res,

(10): 1477–1490.

Senatov F, Niaza K, Zadorozhnyy M Y, et al., 2016,

Mechanical properties and shape memory effect of 3D–

printed PLA–based porous scaffolds. J Mech Behav Biomed

Mater, 57: 139–148.

Jezierski A, Rennie K, Zurakowski B, et al., 2014,

Neuroprotective effects of GDNF–expressing human

amniotic fluid cells. Stem Cell Rev Rep, 10(2): 251–268.

Shuai C, Li Y, Feng P, et al., 2018, Positive feedback effects of

Mg on the hydrolysis of poly–l–lactic acid (PLLA): Promoted

degradation of PLLA scaffolds. Polym Test, 68: 27–33.

Yang L, Li J, Jin Y, et al., 2015, In vitro enzymatic degradation

of the cross–linked poly (ε–caprolactone) implants. Polym

Degrad Stab, 112: 10–19.

Du Y, Liu H, Yang Q, et al., 2017, Selective laser sintering

scaffold with hierarchical architecture and gradient

composition for osteochondral repair in rabbits. Biomaterials,

: 37.

Du Y, Liu H, Shuang J, et al., 2015, Microsphere–based

selective laser sintering for building macroporous bone

scaffolds with controlled microstructure and excellent

biocompatibility. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 135: 81.

Kumaresan T, Gandhinathan R, Ramu M, et al., 2016, Design,

analysis and fabrication of polyamide/hydroxyapatite porous 21

structured scaffold using selective laser sintering method

for bio–medical applications. J Mech Sci Technol, 30(11):

–5312.

Shuai C, Gao C, Nie Y, et al., 2011, Structure and properties

of nano–hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

with a selective laser sintering system. Nanotechnology,

(28): 285703.

Shuai C, Li P, Liu J, et al., 2013, Optimization of TCP/HAP

ratio for better properties of calcium phosphate scaffold via

selective laser sintering. Mater Charact, 77(3): 23–31.

Liu J, Hu H, Li P, et al., 2013, Fabrication and characterization

of porous 45S5 glass scaffolds via direct selective laser

sintering. Mater Manuf Process, 28(6): 610–615.

Sing S L, Yeong W Y, Wiria F E, et al., 2017, Direct selective

laser sintering and melting of ceramics: A review. Rapid

Prototyp J, 23(3): 611–623.

Liu J, Gao C, Feng P, et al., 2015, A bioactive glass

nanocomposite scaffold toughed by multi–wall carbon

nanotubes for tissue engineering. J Ceram Soc Jpn,

(1438): 485–491.

Gao C, Pei F, Peng S, et al., 2017, Carbon nanotubes,

graphene and boron nitride nanotubes reinforced bioactive

ceramics for bone repair. Acta Biomater, 61: 1.

Järvenpää A, Karjalainen P, Mäntyjärvi K, 2012, Passive laser

assisted bending of ultra–high strength steels. Adv Mater Res,

–420: 1542–1547.

Gao C, Liu T, Shuai C, et al., 2014, Enhancement mechanisms

of graphene in nano–58S bioactive glass scaffold: Mechanical

and biological performance. Sci Rep, 4(4): 4712.

Duan S, Feng P, Gao C, et al., 2015, Microstructure evolution

and mechanical properties improvement in liquid–phase–

sintered hydroxyapatite by laser sintering. Materials, 8(3):

–1175.

Liu D, Zhuang J, Shuai C, et al., 2013, Mechanical properties’

improvement of a tricalcium phosphate scaffold with poly–l–

lactic acid in selective laser sintering. Biofabrication, 5(2):

Gu D, Hagedorn Y C, Meiners W, et al., 2012, Densification

behavior, microstructure evolution, and wear performance of

selective laser melting processed commercially pure titanium.

Acta Mater, 60(9): 3849–3860.

Čapek J, Machová M, Fousová M, et al., 2016, Highly porous,

low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by

selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng C, 69: 631–639.

Weißmann V, Bader R, Hansmann H, et al., 2016, Influence

of the structural orientation on the mechanical properties of

selective laser melted Ti6Al4V open–porous scaffolds. Mater

Des, 95: 188–197.

Wang L, Kang J, Sun C, et al., 2017, Mapping porous

microstructures to yield desired mechanical properties for

application in 3D printed bone scaffolds and orthopaedic

implants. Mater Des, 133: 62–68.

Shah F A, Snis A, Matic A, et al., 2016, 3D printed Ti6Al4V

implant surface promotes bone maturation and retains a

higher density of less aged osteocytes at the bone–implant

interface. Acta Biomater, 30: 357–367.

Yang Y, Guo X, He C, et al., 2018, Regulating degradation

behavior by incorporating mesoporous silica for Mg bone

implants. Acs Biomater Sci Eng, 4(3): 1046–1054.

Deng Y, Yang Y, Gao C, et al., 2018, Mechanism for

corrosion protection of β–TCP reinforced ZK60 via laser

rapid solidification. Int J Bioprint, 4(1): 124.

Shuai C, Xue L, Gao C, et al., 2018, Selective laser melting

of Zn–Ag alloys for bone repair: Microstructure, mechanical

properties and degradation behaviour. Virtual Phys Prototyp,

(3): 146-154.

Yang Y, Yuan F, Gao C, et al., 2018, A combined strategy to

enhance the properties of Zn by laser rapid solidification and

laser alloying. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 82: 51–60.

Sing S L, An J, Yeong W Y, et al., 2016, Laser and electron–

beam powder–bed additive manufacturing of metallic

implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

J Orthop Res, 34(3): 369–385.

Shuai C, Yang Y, Wu P, et al., 2017, Laser rapid solidification

improves corrosion behavior of Mg–Zn–Zr alloy. J Alloys

Comp, 691: 961–969.

Shuai C, He C, Feng P, et al., 2017, Biodegradation

mechanisms of selective laser–melted Mg–xAl–Zn alloy:

Grain size and intermetallic phase. Virtual Phys Prototyp,

(2): 1–11.

Yang Y, Wu P, Lin X, et al., 2016, System development,

formability quality and microstructure evolution of selective

laser–melted magnesium. Virtual Phys Prototyp, 11(3):

–181.

Li Y, Zhou J, Pavanram P, et al., 2018, Additively

manufactured biodegradable porous magnesium. Acta

Biomater, 67: 378–392.

Grasso M, Demir A, Previtali B, et al., 2018, In situ

monitoring of selective laser melting of zinc powder via

infrared imaging of the process plume. Robot Comput Integr

Manuf, 49: 229–239.

Wen P, Jauer L, Voshage M, et al., 2018, Densification

behavior of pure Zn metal parts produced by selective laser

melting for manufacturing biodegradable implants. J Mater

Process Technol, 258: 128–137.

Demir A G, Monguzzi L, Previtali B, 2017, Selective laser

melting of pure Zn with high density for biodegradable

implant manufacturing. Add Manuf, 15: 20–28.

Montani M, Demir A G, Mostaed E, et al., 2017, Processability

of pure Zn and pure Fe by SLM for biodegradable metallic

implant manufacturing. Rapid Prototyp J, 23(3): 514–523.

Hou Y, Jia G, Yue R, et al., 2018, Synthesis of biodegradable

Zn–based scaffolds using NaCl templates: Relationship

between porosity, compressive properties and degradation

behavior. Mater Charact, 137: 305–315.

Hutmacher D W, 2000, Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone

and cartilage. Biomaterials, 21(24): 2529–2543.

Zhou C, Yang K, Wang K, et al., 2016, Combination of fused

deposition modeling and gas foaming technique to fabricated

hierarchical macro/microporous polymer scaffolds. Mater

Des, 109: 415–424.

Tellis B C, Szivek J A, Bliss C L, et al., 2008, Trabecular

scaffolds created using micro CT guided fused deposition

modeling. Mater Sci Eng C, 28(1): 171–178.

Kosorn W, Sakulsumbat M, Uppanan P, et al., 2017, PCL/

PHBV blended three dimensional scaffolds fabricated by

fused deposition modeling and responses of chondrocytes

to the scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater,

(5): 1141.

De S R, D’Amora U, Russo T, et al., 2015, 3D fibre

deposition and stereolithography techniques for the design of

multifunctional nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds. J Mater

Sci Mater Med, 26(10): 250.

Vaezi M, Yang S, 2015, Extrusion–based additive

manufacturing of PEEK for biomedical applications. Virtual

Phys Prototyp, 10(3): 123–135.

Rinaldi M, Ghidini T, Cecchini F, et al., 2018, Additive layer

manufacturing of poly (ether ether ketone) via FDM. Compos

Part B Eng, 145: 162-172.

Shim J H, Won J Y, Sung S J, et al., 2015, Comparative

efficacies of a 3D–printed PCL/PLGA/β–TCP membrane and

a titanium membrane for guided bone regeneration in beagle

dogs. Polymers, 7(10): 2061–2077.

Youssef A, Hollister S J, Dalton P D, 2017, Additive

manufacturing of polymer melts for implantable medical

devices and scaffolds. Biofabrication, 9(1): 12002.

Xu N, Ye X, Wei D, et al., 2014, 3D artificial bones for

bone repair prepared by computed tomography–guided

fused deposition modeling for bone repair. Acs Appl Mater

Interfaces, 6(17): 14952–14963.

Kim J, Mcbride S, Tellis B, et al., 2012, Rapid–prototyped

PLGA/β–TCP/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds in a

rabbit femoral defect model. Biofabrication, 4(2): 25003.

Poh P S, Hutmacher D W, Holzapfel B M, et al., 2016, In vitro

and in vivo bone formation potential of surface calcium

phosphate–coated polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone/

bioactive glass composite scaffolds. Acta Biomater,

: 319–333.

Frazier W E, 2014, Metal additive manufacturing: A review.

J Mater Eng Perform, 23(6): 1917–1928.

Liang Hand Harris R, 2008, Customised Implants for Bone

Replacement and Growth. US: Springer.

Ataee A, Li Y, Fraser D, et al., 2018, Anisotropic Ti–6Al–4V

gyroid scaffolds manufactured by electron beam melting

(EBM) for bone implant applications. Mater Des, 137: 1-480.

Surmeneva M, Surmenev R, Chudinova E, et al., 2017,

Fabrication of multiple–layered gradient cellular metal

scaffold via electron beam melting for segmental bone

reconstruction. Mater Des, 133: 195-204.

Li S J, Xu Q S, Wang Z, et al., 2014, Influence of cell shape

on mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V meshes fabricated

by electron beam melting method. Acta Biomater, 10(10):

–4547.

Shah F A, Omar O, Suska F, et al., 2016, Long–term

osseointegration of 3D printed CoCr constructs with an

interconnected open–pore architecture prepared by electron

beam melting. Acta Biomater, 36: 296–309.

Zhao S, Li S J, Hou W T, et al., 2016, The influence of cell

morphology on the compressive fatigue behavior of Ti–6Al–

V meshes fabricated by electron beam melting. J Mech

Behav Biomed Mater, 59: 251–264.

Zhao B, Wang H, Qiao N, et al., 2016, Corrosion resistance

characteristics of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy scaffold that is fabricated

by electron beam melting and selective laser melting for

implantation in vivo. Mater Sci Eng C, 70(Pt 1): 832–841.

Lv J, Jia Z, Li J, et al., 2015, Electron beam melting

fabrication of porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds: Cytocompatibility

and osteogenesis. Adv Eng Mater, 17(9): 1391–1398.

Algardh J K, Horn T, West H, et al., 2016, Thickness

dependency of mechanical properties for thin–walled titanium

parts manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM) ®;∗.

Add Manuf, 12: 45–50.

Eldesouky I, Harrysson O, West H, et al., 2017, Electron

beam melted scaffolds for orthopedic applications. Add

Manuf, 17: 169-175.

Rännar L E, Gustafson C Gand Glad A, 2008, Efficient

cooling with tool inserts manufactured by electron beam

melting. Rapid Prototyp J, 13(3): 128–135.23

Palaganas N, Mangadlao J, De A L, et al., 2017, 3D printing of

photocurable cellulose nanocrystal composite for fabrication

of complex architectures via stereolithography. Acs Appl

Mater Interfaces, 9(39): 34314–34324.

Wan Q, Tian J, Liu M, et al., 2015, Surface modification

of carbon nanotubes via combination of mussel inspired

chemistry and chain transfer free radical polymerization.

Appl Surf Sci, 346: 335–341.

Li B, Hou W, Sun J, et al., 2015, Tunable functionalization

of graphene oxide sheets through surface–initiated cationic

polymerization. Macromolecules, 48(4): 994–1001.

Elomaa L, Teixeira S, Hakala R, et al., 2011, Preparation of

poly(ε–caprolactone)–based tissue engineering scaffolds by

stereolithography. Acta Biomater, 7(11): 3850–3856.

Hockaday L A, Kang K H, Colangelo N W, et al., 2012,

Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically

heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds. Biofabrication,

(3): 35005.

Meyer W, Engelhardt S, Novosel E, et al., 2012, Soft

polymers for building up small and smallest blood supplying

systems by stereolithography. J Funct Biomater, 3(2):

–268.

Guillaume O, Geven M A, Sprecher C M, et al., 2017,

Surface–enrichment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in

stereolithography–fabricated composite polymer scaffolds

promotes bone repair. Acta Biomater, 54: 386-398.

Thavornyutikarn B, Tesavibul P, Sitthiseripratip K, et al.,

, Porous 45S5 bioglass®–based scaffolds using

stereolithography: Effect of partial pre–sintering on structural

and mechanical properties of scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng C

Mater Biol Appl, 75: 1281.

Du D, Asaoka T, Ushida T, et al., 2014, Fabrication and

perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using

stereolithography. Biofabrication, 6(4): 45002.

Levy R A, Chu T M, Halloran J W, et al., 1997, CT–generated

porous hydroxyapatite orbital floor prosthesis as a prototype

bioimplant. Ajnr Am J Neuroradiol, 18(8): 1522–1525.

Sabree I, Gough J E, Derby B, 2015, Mechanical properties

of porous ceramic scaffolds: Influence of internal dimensions.

Ceram Int, 41(7): 8425–8432.

Kim J Y, Jin W L, Lee S J, et al., 2007, Development of a bone

scaffold using HA nanopowder and micro–stereolithography

technology. Microelectronic Eng, 84(5–8): 1762–1765.

Melchels F P, Feijen J, Grijpma D W, 2010, A review

on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical

engineering. Biomaterials, 31(24): 6121–6130.

Sun B, Long Y Z, Zhang H D, et al., 2014, Advances in three–

dimensional nanofibrous macrostructures via electrospinning.

Prog Polym Sci, 39(5): 862–890.

Hochleitner G, JãNgst T, Brown T D, et al., 2015, Additive

manufacturing of scaffolds with sub–micron filaments via

melt electrospinning writing. Biofabrication, 7(3): 35002.

Tian L, Prabhakaran M P, Hu J, et al., 2016, Synergistic

effect of topography, surface chemistry and conductivity of

the electrospun nanofibrous scaffold on cellular response of

PC12 cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 145: 420–429.

Wang P, Wang Y, Tong L, 2013, Functionalized polymer

nanofibers: A versatile platform for manipulating light at the

nanoscale. Light Sci Appl, 2(10): e102.

Repanas A, Andriopoulou S, Glasmacher B, 2016, The

significance of electrospinning as a method to create fibrous

scaffolds for biomedical engineering and drug delivery

applications. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol, 31: 137–146.

Cipitria A, 2011, Design, fabrication and characterization of

PCL electrospun scaffolds - A review. J Mater Chem, 21(26):

–9453.

Luu Y K, Kim K, Hsiao B S, et al., 2003, Development of a

nanostructured DNA delivery scaffold via electrospinning of

PLGA and PLA–PEG block copolymers. J Controll Release,

(2): 341–353.

Brown J H, Das P, Divito M D, et al., 2018, Nanofibrous

PLGA electrospun scaffolds modified with Type I collagen

influence hepatocyte function and support viability in vitro.

Acta Biomater, 73: 217–227.

Valente T A M, Silva D M, Gomes P S, et al., 2016, Effect of

sterilization methods on electrospun poly (lactic acid) (PLA)

fiber alignment for biomedical applications. Acs Appl Mater

Interfaces, 8(5): 3241.

Shim I K, Mi R J, Kim K H, et al., 2010, Novel threedimensional scaffolds of poly (L-lactic acid) microfibers

using electrospinning and mechanical expansion: Fabrication

and bone regeneration. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl

Biomater, 95B(1): 150–160.

Vaquette C, Ivanovski S, Hamlet S M, et al., 2013, Effect of

culture conditions and calcium phosphate coating on ectopic

bone formation. Biomaterials, 34(22): 5538–5551.

Yao Q, Cosme J G, Xu T, et al., 2016, Three dimensional

electrospun PCL/PLA blend nanofibrous scaffolds with

significantly improved stem cells osteogenic differentiation

and cranial bone formation. Biomaterials, 115: 115.

Tan R P, Chan A, Lennartsson K, et al., 2018, Integration of

induced pluripotent stem cell–derived endothelial cells with

polycaprolactone/gelatin–based electrospun scaffolds for

enhanced therapeutic angiogenesis. Stem Cell Res Ther, 9(1): 70.24

Li K, Sun H, Sui H, et al., 2015, Composite mesoporous silica

nanoparticle/chitosan nanofibers for bone tissue engineering.

Rsc Adv, 5(23): 17541–17549.

Yong, D, 2015, In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the developed

PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds for bone–cartilage interface

regeneration. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 28(1): 1.

Bagchi A, Meka S R, Rao B N, et al., 2014, Perovskite

ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for augmenting

bone tissue regeneration. Nanotechnology, 25(48): 485101.

Rezvani Z, Venugopal J R, Urbanska A M, et al., 2016,

A bird’s eye view on the use of electrospun nanofibrous

scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: Current state–of–the–

art, emerging directions and future trends. Nanomedicine,

(7): 2181–2200.

Min S K, Kim J H, Singh R K, et al., 2015, Therapeutic–

designed electrospun bone scaffolds: Mesoporous bioactive

nanocarriers in hollow fiber composites to sequentially

deliver dual growth factors. Acta Biomater, 16(1): 103–116.

Rogina A, 2014, Electrospinning process: Versatile

preparation method for biodegradable and natural polymers

and biocomposite systems applied in tissue engineering and

drug delivery. Appl Surf Sci, 296(8): 221–230.

Kenawy E, Abdelhay F I, Elnewehy M H, et al., 2015,

Processing of polymer nanofibers through electrospinning as

drug delivery systems. Mater ChemPhys, 113(1): 296–302.

Kolambkar Y M, Dupont K M, Boerckel J D, et al., 2011,

An alginate–based hybrid system for growth factor delivery

in the functional repair of large bone defects. Biomaterials,

(1): 65.

Aleni A H, Ituarte I F, Mohite A, et al., 2017, Comparing

stiffness of solid and scaffold nano–TiO 2 structures produced

by material extrusion method. Ceram Int, 44(2): 2231-2239.

Huang W, Zhang X, Wu Q, et al., 2013, Fabrication of HA/βTCP scaffolds based on micro-syringe extrusion system.

Rapid Prototyp J, 19(5): 319–326.

Zhou K, Dong C, Zhang X, et al., 2015, Preparation and

characterization of nanosilver–doped porous hydroxyapatite

scaffolds. Ceram Int, 41(1): 1671–1676.

Chen Z, Zhang X, Yang Y, et al., 2017, Fabrication and

characterisation of 3D complex hydroxyapatite scaffolds

with hierarchical porosity of different features for optimal

bioactive performance. Ceram Int, 43(1): 336–344.

Feng P, Niu M, Gao C, et al., 2014, A novel two–step

sintering for nano–hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue

engineering. Sci Rep, 4: 5599.

Liu F H, 2014, Synthesis of biomedical composite scaffolds

by laser sintering: Mechanical properties and in vitro

bioactivity evaluation. Appl Surf Sci, 297(297): 1–8.

Thöne M, Leuders S, Riemer A, et al., 2012, Influence of

Heat–Treatment on Selective Laser Melting Products –

e.g. Ti6Al4V. Austin: Annual International Solid Freeform

Fabrication Symposium.

Wauthle R, Vrancken B, Beynaerts B, et al., 2015, Effects

of build orientation and heat treatment on the microstructure

and mechanical properties of selective laser melted Ti6Al4V

lattice structures. Add Manuf, 5: 77–84.

Zhao X, Lui Y S, Choo C K, et al., 2015, Calcium phosphate

coated keratin–PCL scaffolds for potential bone tissue

regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C, 49: 746–753.

Luo Y, Lode A, Wu C, et al., 2015, Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite

scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D

plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering.

Acs Appl Mater Interfaces, 7(12): 6541–6549.

Rifai A, Tran N, Dwm L, et al., 2018, Polycrystalline diamond

coating of additively manufactured titanium for biomedical

applications. Acs Appl Mater Interfaces, 10(10): 8474–8484.

Chen H, Wang C, Xiao Y, et al., 2016, Construction of

surface HA/TiO 2 coating on porous titanium scaffolds and

its preliminary biological evaluation. Mater Sci Eng C Mater

Biol Appl, 70(Pt 2): 1047.

Chai Y C, Kerckhofs G, Roberts S J, et al., 2012, Ectopic bone

formation by 3D porous calcium phosphate–Ti6Al4V hybrids

produced by perfusion electrodeposition. Biomaterials,

(16): 4044–4058.

Liao H T, Lee M Y, Tsai W W, et al., 2013, Osteogenesis of

adipose-derived stem cells on polycaprolactone–β-tricalcium

phosphate scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering and

surface coating with collagen Type I. J Tissue Eng Regen

Med, 10(10): E337.

Chen C H, Lee M Y, Shyu V B, et al., 2014, Surface

modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via

selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering.

Mater Sci Eng C, 40: 389–397.

Huang W, Zhang H, Huang Y, et al., 2011, Hierarchical

porous carbon obtained from animal bone and evaluation in

electric double–layer capacitors. Carbon, 49(3): 838–843.

Amin Y S, Van d S J, Chai Y C, et al., 2014, Bone

regeneration performance of surface–treated porous titanium.

Biomaterials, 35(24): 6172–6181.

Cheng A, Humayun A, Cohen D J, et al., 2014, Additively

manufactured 3D porous Ti–6Al–4V constructs mimic

trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation,

differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and

surface roughness dependent manner. Biofabrication, 6(4): 2545007.

Shuai C, Yang Y, Feng P, et al., 2018, A multi–scale porous

scaffold fabricated by a combined additive manufacturing

and chemical etching process. Int J Bioprint, 4(3): 133.

Ramier J, Boubaker M B, Guerrouache M, et al., 2014, Novel

routes to epoxy functionalization of PHA-based electrospun

scaffolds as ways to improve cell adhesion. J Polym Sci

Part A Polym Chem, 52(6): 816–824.

Wang X, Li Y, Hodgson P D, et al., 2010, Biomimetic

modification of porous TiNbZr alloy scaffold for bone tissue

engineering. Tissue Eng Part A, 16(1): 309–316.

Hanson A D, Wall M E, Pourdeyhimi B, et al., 2007, Effects

of oxygen plasma treatment on adipose–derived human

mesenchymal stem cell adherence to poly (L–lactic acid)

scaffolds. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 18(11): 1387–1400.

Roh H S, Lee C M, Hwang Y H, et al., 2016, Addition of

MgO nanoparticles and plasma surface treatment of three–

dimensional printed polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds

for improving bone regeneration. Mater Sci Eng C., 74: 1-608.

Roh H S, Jung S C, Kook M S, et al., 2016, In vitro study

of 3D PLGA/n–HAp/β–TCP composite scaffolds with

etched oxygen plasma surface modification in bone tissue

engineering. Appl Surf Sci, 388: 321–330.

Jeon H, Lee H, Kim G, 2014, A surface–modified

poly(ɛ–caprolactone) scaffold comprising variable nanosized

surface–roughness using a plasma treatment. Tissue Eng

Part C Methods, 20(12): 951.

Jayanth N, Senthil P, Prakash C, 2018, Effect of chemical

treatment on tensile strength and surface roughness of 3D–

printed ABS using the FDM process. Virtual Phys Prototyp,

: 1–9.

Calignano F, 2018, Investigation of the accuracy and

roughness in the laser powder bed fusion process. Virtual

Phys Prototyp, 1: 1–8.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v5i1.148

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Cijun Shuai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.