Physical stimulations and their osteogenesis-inducing mechanisms

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Cijun Shuai, Wenjing Yang, Shuping Peng, Chengde Gao, Wang Guo, Yuxiao Lai, Pei Feng


Physical stimulations such as magnetic, electric and mechanical stimulation could enhance cell activity and promote bone formation in bone repair process via activating signal pathways, modulating ion channels, regulating bone-related gene expressions, etc. In this paper, bioeffects of physical stimulations on cell activity, tissue growth and bone healing were systematically summarized, which especially focused on their osteogenesis-inducing mechanisms. Detailedly, magnetic stimulation could produce Hall effect which improved the permeability of cell membrane and promoted the migration of ions, especially accelerating the extracellular calcium ions to pass through cell membrane. Electric stimulation could induce inverse piezoelectric effect which generated electric signals, accordingly up-regulating intracellular calcium levels and growth factor synthesis. And mechanical stimulation could produce mechanical signals which were converted into corresponding biochemical signals, thus activating various signaling pathways on cell membrane and inducing a series of gene expressions. Besides, the equipments of physical stimulation system were discussed. The opportunities and challenges of physical stimulations were also presented from the perspective of bone repair.


physical stimulations; cell activity; osteogenesis-inducing mechanisms; bone repair

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