(In progress)

Table of Contents

Special Section: 3D Printing and Bioprinting for the Future of Healthcare

Guest Editors: Associate Professor Wai Yee Yeong, Dr. Shweta Agarwala & Dr. Lifeng Kang

Original Articles

by Li Tian, Jianmin Zheng, Yiyu Cai, Muhammad Faaiz Khan Bin Abdul Halil, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Daniel Thalmann, Hanhui Li
438 Views, 141 PDF Downloads

Current research of designing prosthetic robotic hands mainly focuses on improving their functionality by devising new mechanical structures and actuation systems. Most of existing work relies on a single structure/system (e.g., bone-only or tissue-only) and ignores the fact that the human hand is composed of multiple functional structures (e.g., skin, bones, muscles, and tendons). This may increase the difficulty of the design process and lower the flexibility of the fabricated hand. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) printable multi-layer design that models the hand with the layers of skin, tissues, and bones. The proposed design first obtains the 3D surface model of a target hand via 3D scanning, and then generates the 3D bone models from the surface model based on a fast template matching method. To overcome the disadvantage of the rigid bone layer in deformation, the tissue layer is introduced and represented by a concentric tube based structure, of which the deformability can be explicitly controlled by a parameter. The experimental results show that the proposed design outperforms previous designs remarkably. With the proposed design, prosthetic robotic hands can be produced quickly with low cost and be customizable and deformable.

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Original Articles

by Wei Long Ng, Xi Huang, Viktor Shkolnikov, Guo Liang Goh, Ratima Suntornnond, Wai Yee Yeong
245 Views, 79 PDF Downloads

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems serve as advanced manufacturing platform for the precise deposition of cells and biomaterials at pre-defined positions. Among the various bioprinting techniques, the drop-on-demand jetting approach facilitates deposition of pico/nanoliter droplets of cells and materials for study of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Despite advances in the bioprinting systems, there is a poor understanding of how the viability of primary human cells within sub-nanoliter droplets is affected during the printing process. In this work, a thermal inkjet system is utilized to dispense sub-nanoliter cell-laden droplets, and two key factors – droplet impact velocity and droplet volume – are identified to have significant effect on the viability and proliferation of printed cells. An increase in the cell concentration results in slower impact velocity, which leads to higher viability of the printed cells and improves the printing outcome by mitigating droplet splashing. Furthermore, a minimum droplet volume of 20 nL per spot helps to mitigate evaporation-induced cell damage and maintain high viability of the printed cells within a printing duration of 2 min. Hence, controlling the droplet impact velocity and droplet volume in sub-nanoliter bioprinting is critical for viability and proliferation of printed human primary cells.

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Regular Section

Original Articles

by Guibin Lou, Ya Chen, Junwei Xu, Yingjuan Qian, Haixia Cheng, Zhen Wei, Youwen Yang, Lida Shen, Cijun Shuai
216 Views, 87 PDF Downloads, 47 Supp.File Downloads

Graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as a promising antibacterial material that is expected to be used to prepare a new generation of high-efficiency antibacterial coatings. The propensity of GO to agglomeration makes it difficult to apply it effectively. A new method of preparing GO-loaded nickel (GNC) with excellent antibacterial property is proposed in this paper. In this work, GNC was prepared on a titanium sheet by magnetic field-assisted scanning jet electrodeposition. The massive introduction of GO on the coating was proven by energy disperse spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The antibacterial performance of GNC was proven by agar plate assessment and cell living/dead staining. The detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the concentration of nickel ions, indicate that the antibacterial property of GNC are not entirely derived from the nickel ions released by the coating and the intracellular ROS induced by nickel ions, but rather are due to the synergistic effect of nickel ions and GO.

Original Articles

by Jingzhou Yang, Hairui Gao, Dachen Zhang, Xia Jin, Faqiang Zhang, Shupei Zhang, Haishen Chen, Xiaopeng Li
226 Views, 78 PDF Downloads
Additively manufactured trabecular tantalum (Ta) scaffolds are promising bone repair materials for load-bearing applications due to their good pore interconnectivity. However, a thorough mechanical behavior evaluation is required before conducting animal studies and clinical research using these scaffolds. In this study, we revealed the compressive mechanical behavior and material failure mechanism of trabecular tantalum scaffolds by compression testing, finite element analysis (FEA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Trabecular tantalum scaffolds with porosities of 65%, 75%, and 85% were fabricated by laser powder bed fusion-based additive manufacturing. Porosity has a significant effect on their compressive mechanical properties. As the porosity decreased from 85% to 65%, the compressive yield strength and elastic modulus increased from 11.9 MPa to 35.7 MPa and 1.1 GPa to 3.0 GPa, respectively. Compression testing results indicate that trabecular tantalum scaffolds demonstrate ductile deformation and excellent mechanical reliability. No macroscopic cracks were found when they were subjected to strain up to 50%. SEM observations showed that material failure results from tantalum strut deformation and fracture. Most microcracks occurred at conjunctions, whereas few of them appear on the struts. FEA-generated compressive stress distribution and material deformation were consistent with experimental results. Stress concentrates at strut conjunctions and vertical struts, where fractures occur during compression testing, indicating that the load-bearing capability of trabecular tantalum scaffolds can be enhanced by strengthening strut conjunctions and vertical struts. Therefore, additively manufactured trabecular tantalum scaffolds can be used in bone tissue reconstruction applications.
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