ISSN: 2424-8002 (Online)

ISSN: 2424-7723 (Print)

Journal Abbreviation: Int J Bioprint

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Article Processing Charges (APC): Click here for more details

Publishing Model: Open Access

Impact Factor: 6.638

Journal no: 10P

(In progress)

Table of Contents

Original Articles

by Li Tian, Jianmin Zheng, Yiyu Cai, Muhammad Faaiz Khan Bin Abdul Halil, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Daniel Thalmann, Hanhui Li

Current research of designing prosthetic robotic hands mainly focuses on improving their functionality by devising new mechanical structures and actuation systems. Most of existing work relies on a single structure/system (e.g., bone-only or tissue-only) and ignores the fact that the human hand is composed of multiple functional structures (e.g., skin, bones, muscles, and tendons). This may increase the difficulty of the design process and lower the flexibility of the fabricated hand. To tackle this problem, this paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) printable multi-layer design that models the hand with the layers of skin, tissues, and bones. The proposed design first obtains the 3D surface model of a target hand via 3D scanning, and then generates the 3D bone models from the surface model based on a fast template matching method. To overcome the disadvantage of the rigid bone layer in deformation, the tissue layer is introduced and represented by a concentric tube based structure, of which the deformability can be explicitly controlled by a parameter. The experimental results show that the proposed design outperforms previous designs remarkably. With the proposed design, prosthetic robotic hands can be produced quickly with low cost and be customizable and deformable.


Original Articles

by Guibin Lou, Ya Chen, Junwei Xu, Yingjuan Qian, Haixia Cheng, Zhen Wei, Youwen Yang, Lida Shen, Cijun Shuai

Graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as a promising antibacterial material that is expected to be used to prepare a new generation of high-efficiency antibacterial coatings. The propensity of GO to agglomeration makes it difficult to apply it effectively. A new method of preparing GO-loaded nickel (GNC) with excellent antibacterial property is proposed in this paper. In this work, GNC was prepared on a titanium sheet by magnetic field-assisted scanning jet electrodeposition. The massive introduction of GO on the coating was proven by energy disperse spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The antibacterial performance of GNC was proven by agar plate assessment and cell living/dead staining. The detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the concentration of nickel ions, indicate that the antibacterial property of GNC are not entirely derived from the nickel ions released by the coating and the intracellular ROS induced by nickel ions, but rather are due to the synergistic effect of nickel ions and GO.

Original Articles

by Wei Long Ng, Xi Huang, Viktor Shkolnikov, Guo Liang Goh, Ratima Suntornnond, Wai Yee Yeong

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting systems serve as advanced manufacturing platform for the precise deposition of cells and biomaterials at pre-defined positions. Among the various bioprinting techniques, the drop-on-demand jetting approach facilitates deposition of pico/nanoliter droplets of cells and materials for study of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Despite advances in the bioprinting systems, there is a poor understanding of how the viability of primary human cells within sub-nanoliter droplets is affected during the printing process. In this work, a thermal inkjet system is utilized to dispense sub-nanoliter cell-laden droplets, and two key factors V droplet impact velocity and droplet volume V are identified to have significant effect on the viability and proliferation of printed cells. An increase in the cell concentration results in slower impact velocity, which leads to higher viability of the printed cells and improves the printing outcome by mitigating droplet splashing. Furthermore, a minimum droplet volume of 20 nL per spot helps to mitigate evaporation-induced cell damage and maintain high viability of the printed cells within a printing duration of 2 min. Hence, controlling the droplet impact velocity and droplet volume in sub-nanoliter bioprinting is critical for viability and proliferation of printed human primary cells.


Original Articles

by Jingzhou Yang, Hairui Gao, Dachen Zhang, Xia Jin, Faqiang Zhang, Shupei Zhang, Haishen Chen, Xiaopeng Li
Additively manufactured trabecular tantalum (Ta) scaffolds are promising bone repair materials for load-bearing applications due to their good pore interconnectivity. However, a thorough mechanical behavior evaluation is required before conducting animal studies and clinical research using these scaffolds. In this study, we revealed the compressive mechanical behavior and material failure mechanism of trabecular tantalum scaffolds by compression testing, finite element analysis (FEA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Trabecular tantalum scaffolds with porosities of 65%, 75%, and 85% were fabricated by laser powder bed fusion-based additive manufacturing. Porosity has a significant effect on their compressive mechanical properties. As the porosity decreased from 85% to 65%, the compressive yield strength and elastic modulus increased from 11.9 MPa to 35.7 MPa and 1.1 GPa to 3.0 GPa, respectively. Compression testing results indicate that trabecular tantalum scaffolds demonstrate ductile deformation and excellent mechanical reliability. No macroscopic cracks were found when they were subjected to strain up to 50%. SEM observations showed that material failure results from tantalum strut deformation and fracture. Most microcracks occurred at conjunctions, whereas few of them appear on the struts. FEA-generated compressive stress distribution and material deformation were consistent with experimental results. Stress concentrates at strut conjunctions and vertical struts, where fractures occur during compression testing, indicating that the load-bearing capability of trabecular tantalum scaffolds can be enhanced by strengthening strut conjunctions and vertical struts. Therefore, additively manufactured trabecular tantalum scaffolds can be used in bone tissue reconstruction applications.

Original Articles

by Leonie Waldburger, Romain Schaller, Christina Furthmuller, Lorena Schrepfer, Dirk J. Schaefer, Alexandre Kaempfen

In this randomized controlled pilot trial, we compared three-dimensional (3D)-printed made-to-measure splints to conventional custom-made thermoplastic splints. In a clinical setting, we evaluated their general applicability and possible benefits for immobilization in hand surgical patients. We included 20 patients with an indication for immobilization of at least 4 weeks, regardless of the splint design. Patient comfort and satisfaction were assessed with questionnaires at splint fitting, as well as 2 and 4V6 weeks later. The 3D splints were designed and printed in-house with polylactic acid from a 3D surface scan. Our data suggest that 3D-printed splinting is feasible, and patient satisfaction ratings were similar for 3D-printed and thermoplastic splints. The 3D splint production process needs to be optimized and other materials need to be tested before routine implementation is possible or more patients can be enrolled in further studies. Validated quality assessment tools for current splinting are lacking, and further investigation is necessary.


Original Articles

by Chun-Li Lin, Yu-Tzu Wang, Chun-Ming Chang, Cheng-Hsien Wu, Wei-Heng Tsai

This study developed design criterion for patient-specific reconstructed implants with appearance consideration and structural optimization of various mandibular continuity defects. The different mandible continuity defects include C (from left to right canines), B (from 1st premolar to 3rd molar), and A (from 3rd molar to ramus) segments defined based on the mandible image. The finite element (FE) analysis and weighted topology optimization methods were combined to design internal support beam structures within different reconstructed implants with corresponding occlusal conditions. Five continuity mandibular defects (single B/C/A+B and combination of B+C and B+C+B segments) were restored using additive manufacturing (AM) reconstructed implant and bone plate to confirm reasonable design criterion through biomechanical fatigue testing. The worst mandible strength was filtered based on the material mechanics and results from segmental bone length, thickness, and height statistics from the established database containing mandible images of 105 patients. The weighted optimization analysis results indicated that the sizes and positions of internal supporting beams within the reconstructed C, B, and A+B implants can be defined parametrically through corresponding segmental bone length, width, and height. The FE analysis found that the weight variation percentage between the parametric designed implants and original core solid implants in the C, B, and A+B was reduced by 54.3%, 63.7%, and 69.7%, respectively. The maximum stress values of the reconstructed implant and the remaining bone were not obviously reduced but the stress values were far lower than the material ultimate strength. The biomechanical fatigue testing indicated that all cases using the AM reconstructed implant could pass the 250,000 dynamic load. However, condyle head, bone plate fracture, and bone screw loosening could be found in cases using bone plates. This study developed a design criterion for patient-specific reconstructed implants for various mandibular continuity defects applicable for AM to further clinical use.


Original Articles

by Mick Iversen, Monisha Monisha, Shweta Agarwala

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic regeneration process, wherein the physical and chemical parameters are continuously changing. Its management and monitoring can provide immense benefits, especially for bed-ridden patients. This work reports a low-cost, flexible, and fully printed on-skin patch sensor to measure the change in pH and fluid content in a wound. Such a bendable sensor can also be easily incorporated in a wound dressing. The sensor consists of different electrodes printed on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate for pH and moisture sensing. The fabricated sensor patch has a sensitivity of 7.1 ohm/pH for wound pH levels. The hydration sensor results showed that moisture levels on a semi-porous surface can be quantified through resistance change.

Original Articles

by Patiguli Aihemaiti, Houfeng Jiang, Aiyiti Wurikaixi, Ayiguli Kasimu

The building parameters of three-dimensional (3D) printed polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite bone plates were optimized by an orthogonal experiment, and the effects of the layer thickness, printing speed, filament feeding speed, and HA content on the bending strengths of the specimens were analyzed. The deformation characteristics of the specimens were studied by 3D full-field strain analysis, and the internal defects of the specimens were analyzed. The effects of different combinations of the process parameters on the cross-sectional shape of the single deposited line, printing temperature, and pressure of the molten material were further analyzed. The results showed that the factors affecting the bending properties were the layer thickness, printing speed, filament feeding speed, and HA content, successively. The optimized process parameters were an HA content of 10%, a layer thickness of 0.1 mm, a printing speed of 30 mm/s, and a filament feeding speed of 0.8 mm/s, and the optimized specimen bending strength was 103.1 5.24 MPa. The deposited line with a flat section shape and width greater than the print spacing helped to reduce the porosity of the specimens. The process parameters that resulted in large high-temperature areas and a high extrusion pressure could better promote material fusion.


Original Articles

by Kai Yao, Jie Sun, Kaizhu Huang, Linzhi Jing, Hang Liu, Dejian Huang, Curran Jude

Fibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems to establish in vitro models in cell biology, tissue engineering, and drug screening. It is a common practice to characterize cell behaviors on such scaffolds using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). As a noninvasive technology, CLSM images can be utilized to describe cell-scaffold interaction under varied morphological features, biomaterial composition, and internal structure. Unfortunately, such information has not been fully translated and delivered to researchers due to the lack of effective cell segmentation methods. We developed herein an end-to-end model called Aligned Disentangled Generative Adversarial Network (AD-GAN) for 3D unsupervised nuclei segmentation of CLSM images. AD-GAN utilizes representation disentanglement to separate content representation (the underlying nuclei spatial structure) from style representation (the rendering of the structure) and align the disentangled content in the latent space. The CLSM images collected from fibrous scaffold-based culturing A549, 3T3, and HeLa cells were utilized for nuclei segmentation study. Compared with existing commercial methods such as Squassh and CellProfiler, our AD-GAN can effectively and efficiently distinguish nuclei with the preserved shape and location information. Building on such information, we can rapidly screen cell-scaffold interaction in terms of adhesion, migration and proliferation, so as to improve scaffold design.

Original Articles

by S Lopez de Armentia, S Fernandez-Villamarin, Y. Ballesteros, J.C. del Real, N. Dunne, E. Paz

Additive manufacturing is gaining importance thanks to its multiple advantages. Stereolithography (SLA) shows the highest accuracy and the lowest anisotropy, which has facilitated the emergence of new applications as dentistry or tissue engineering. However, the availability of commercial photopolymers is still limited, and there is an increasing interest in developing resins with properties adapted for these new applications. The addition of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBN) may provide interesting advantages, such as improved mechanical properties and bioactivity. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of GBNs on the polymerization reaction. A photopolymerizable acrylic resin has been used, and the effect of the addition of 0.1wt% of graphene (G); graphene oxide (GO) and graphite nanoplatelets (GoxNP) on printability and polymerization have been investigated. It was observed that the effect depended on GBN type, functionalization and structure (e.g., number of layers, size, and morphology) due to differences in the extent of dispersion and light absorbance. The obtained results showed that GO and GoxNP did not significantly affect the printability and quality of the final structure, whilst the application of G exhibited a negative effect in terms of printability due to a reduction in the polymerization degree. GO and GoxNP-loaded resins showed a great potential to be used for manufacturing structures by SLA.


Original Articles

by Haowen Liang, Yue Wang, Shangsi Chen, Yang Liu, Zhengbai Liu, Bai Jiaming

The morphologies and structures of the scaffold have a significant influence on their mechanical and biological properties. In this work, different types of porous structures: Triply periodic minimal surface-Schwarz primitive (P), body centered cubic, and cubic pore-shaped (CPS) hydroxyapatite scaffolds with ~70% porosity were fabricated through digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing technology. The compressive properties and in vitro cell evaluations such as cell proliferation and attachment morphology of these scaffolds were systematically compared. The results showed that the CPS scaffolds exhibited the highest compressive strength (~22.5 MPa) and modulus (~400 MPa). In addition, the CPS scaffolds also performed the most active cell metabolisms as compared to other two structures, which may account for the larger pore size and smaller curvature of the substrate. This study provides a general guidance for the fabrication and selection of porous bone scaffolds processed by DLP 3D printing.


Review Articles

by Yan Zhou, Jingwen Wang, Youwen Yang, Mingli Yang, Haizhong Zheng, Deqiao Xie, Dongsheng Wang, Lida Shen

Biodegradable zinc (Zn) is expected to be used in clinical application like bone tissue engineering scaffolds, since it possesses favorable biocompatibility and suitable degradation rate. Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), which is a typical additive manufacturing technique, offers tremendous advantages in fabricating medical devices with personalized geometric shape and complex porous structure. Therefore, the combination of LPBF and biodegradable Zn has gained intensive attention and also achieved rapid development in recent years. However, it severely challenges the formation quality and resultant performance of LPBF-processed Zn-based materials, due to the evaporation and element loss during laser processing. In this study, the current research status and future research trends for LPBF of Zn-based implants are reviewed from comprehensive viewpoints including formation quality, microstructure feature, and performance. The influences of powder characteristics and process parameters on formation quality are described systematically. The microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, as well as the degradation behavior are also discussed. Finally, the research perspectives for LPBF of Zn are summarized, aiming to provide guideline for future study.


Perspective Articles

by Swee Leong Sing

Stress shielding caused by the mismatch of modulus between the implant and natural bones, is one of the major problems faced by current commercially used biomedical materials. Beta-titanium (]-Ti) alloys are a class of materials that have received increased interest in the biomedical field due to their relatively low elastic modulus and excellent biocompatibility. Due to their lower modulus, ]-Ti alloys have the potential to reduce stress shielding. Powder bed fusion (PBF), a category of additive manufacturing, or more commonly known as 3D printing techniques, has been used to process ]-Ti alloys. In this perspective article, the emerging research of PBF of ]-Ti alloys is covered. The potential and limitations of using PBF for these materials in biomedical applications are also elucidated with focus on the perspectives from processes, materials, and designs. Finally, future trends and potential research topics are highlighted.


Author Guidelines

Before submitting for publication, please check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions for submitting a manuscript to our online submission system.

Manuscript Format

Your manuscript should be in MS Word. You are advised to download the template when preparing your submissions to this journal. All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized, with the exception of “e.g.” and “i.e.” If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service.

Types of submission

International Journal of Bioprinting accepts original articles, reviews, letters, editorials, commentaries, perspectives and position papers. Please read this section further for the definition of each type and select the appropriate option in the submission system. Submissions exceeding the suggested requirements, such as total manuscript length, will still be processed for consideration and peer review. However, article processing charges will differ in exceptional cases (e.g. a raw text file exceeding 2MB, etc.) The article processing charge will then be determined on a case-by-case basis.

Original Articles: Original Articles are scientific articles based on original, basic and applied research and/or analysis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 40 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Review Articles: A Review Article summarizes and highlights recent developments and current/future trends of the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Short Communications: Short Communications are short articles that present original and significant findings on a particular problem or novel findings that is anticipated to have significant impact.

The length of a Short Communication, including the Abstract and References, should not exceed 4,000 words. The article should contain Abstract (not more than 150 words), Background, Materials and Method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References, and contain no more than 5 figures and/or tables. Typically, this manuscript type has 15 references.

Perspective Articles: Perspective Articles contain author's personal opinions on a subject/topic. Unlike Reviews, Perspective articles may cover a more specific, narrow part of the field. However, these are still required to uphold the spirit of academia to be objective as well as aim to initiate or further discussions and novel experimental procedures in the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Commentaries: This type of article contains unsolicited commentaries or analysis from reader(s) targeting specific published articles in the journal.

This manuscript type typically has 3 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Clinical Case Studies: A Clinical Case Study presents the details and results from the clinical application of bioprinted products or equivalents on patient cases, and highlights specific instances of interesting phenomena. Submissions will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Methods: Methods articles present new or improved version of experimental methods, tests or procedures pertaining to the field of bioprinting.

This manuscript type typically has 10 tables and figures in total, approximately 30 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors consist of comments from reader(s) about individual articles. These letters must be constructive and contribute to the development of individual articles published or the entire journal. Letters containing new ideas, supporting data or data criticizing the article may be subjected to peer-review (determined on a case-by-case basis by the journal's editorial team). Authors should specify the intended recipient of the letters, i.e. Editor-in-Chief or specific author(s).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figures in total, no more than 10 references, and 2,000 words (inclusive of References). No Abstract is required.

Reports: A Report summarizes the execution of a collaborative research program that is directly related to the advancement of bioprinting. Submissions are usually solicited by the editors.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figure in total, 20 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Position Papers: A Position Paper reflects the official opinion of an organization (e.g. government body, funding agency, etc.).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figure in total, not more than 15 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of References). An Abstract is not required in a Position Paper.

Editorials: An Editorial is a solicited, concise commentary that highlights prominent topics in particular issue. Commonly, the Editorials are the official opinions of the editors of the journal or special issue.

An Editorial should not exceed 1,000 words (inclusive of References). Typically, an Abstract is not required and only one figure/table is allowed.

Book Reviews: Book Reviews provide an overview of new publications (books) from the area of bioprinting. Brief summary, focus, argumentation and impact of the book should be provided.

A Book Review is typically of the length of 400-500 words. No Abstract, References, figures and tables are required.

Extended Conference Papers: An Extended Conference Paper is the conference paper version of an original research article that presents the new findings and in-depth discussion of a certain topic.

The manuscripts that do not have relevance to the Focus and Scope of International Journal of Bioprinting will be rejected.

The requirements for Extended Conference Papers are as follows:

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have at least 30% new material and include a citation to the conference paper. In addition to the 30% new material which is acquired through additional experimentation, analyses and proposal of new ideas or theories, the original content that can be found in the conference paper must be paraphrased, i.e. rewriting the sentences or changing the sentence structure. The 30% new material may also include the clarifications in response to questions raised during the presentation at the conference.

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have a new title and a new abstract that are different from the corresponding title in the conference paper. Nevertheless, the new title and new abstract must retain the ‘motivation, methods and conclusions’ of the paper presented at the conference presentation. More data in the form of tables and figures should be added. The results should be discussed in-depth with more examples and explanations. In this regard, more references will be needed.

-           The conference paper must be cited.

-           The order in which the authors’ names listed on the conference paper can be changed, but no new names can be added to and no existing names can be removed from the author list in the Extended Conference Paper.

-           A PDF copy of the conference paper must be submitted along with the submission of the Extended Conference Paper.

-           The format and style of an Extended Conference Paper is similar to the ones of an Original Article. Refer to the specific requirements of the Original Articles.

Erratum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the journal are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.

Corrigendum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the authors are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.


Cover letter

All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers. A cover letter should contain the following:

  • a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to broad readership
  • any associated accession numbers or DOIs of the corresponding preprint version of the submission if it has been deposited on a preprint server
  • recommendations of up to four academically qualified reviewers (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • exclusion of individuals who might have conflict of interest from reviewing the work (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • a statement that “neither the manuscript nor any significant part of it is under consideration for publication elsewhere or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication of the same work”
  • conflict of interest statement
  • a list of names and email addresses of all co-authors of the work who have already seen and approved the manuscript


The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

List of Authors

The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials along with their affiliations. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. For contact, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must view and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting.


Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 200 words. The purpose of abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5 keywords; please avoid using the same words as those already used in the title, separate terms with a semi-colon (term1; term2; term3).

Section Headings

Please number the section headings (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) in boldface. Likewise, use boldface to identify subheadings too but please distinguish it from major headings using numbers (e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.) Further subsections of subheadings should be differentiated by boldface and italics font with the numbers (1), (2), (3), etc.


The introduction should provide a background that gives a broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It tackles a problem and states its important regarding with the significance of the study. Introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

Materials and Methods

This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough detail to for other investigators to fully replicate the results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail for the reproducibility of the experiments. Informed consent should be obtained from patients or parents before the experiments start and should be mentioned in this section.


Ethics information include IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labelled "Ethics Statement" in the "Methods" section of the manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.


This section can be divided into subheadings and focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.


Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

Conflict of Interest

All authors are required, at the time of submission, to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing (commercial) interest in relation to their submitted manuscript, as consistent with the recommendations from the International Committee of Medical Editors (ICMJE). Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. The disclosure should also include all sources of revenue paid (or promised to be paid) directly to authors or their institution on your behalf over the 36 months before submission of the relevant work. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section.

During submission, the Conflict of Interest statement should be included in both the cover letter and manuscript (beneath the Acknowledgments section).

Authors will be requested to complete ICMJE form for Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest when they are invited to submit a revision. Failure to do return a completed form will result in a delay to editorial and peer review progress. If necessary, the initial disclosure statement provided by the authors will be subject to edits for grammar corrections by the editors. Failure to comply with the conflict of interest disclosure statement requirement may result in rejection of the submissions.


Authors should declare all financial and non-financial support that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript in this section. Financial supports are generally in the form of grants, royalties, consulting fees and others. Examples of non-financial support could include the following: externally-supplied equipment/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, contributions from non-authors, etc.


This section is optional and is for all materials (e.g. advanced technical details) that has been excluded from the main text but remain essential to the readers in understanding the manuscripts. This section is not for supplementary figures. Authors are advised to refer to the section on Supplementary Figures for such submissions.


The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50,000 characters (inclusive of spaces), or approximately 7,000 words.

Nomenclature for genes and proteins

This journal aims to reach researchers all over the globe. Hence, for reviewers’ and readers’ ease in comprehension, authors are highly encouraged to use the appropriate gene and protein nomenclature. Authors may prefer to utilize resources such as


Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as one file. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs), as well as should be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be set against a white background. Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis, etc.) and add captions below the figure, as required. These captions should be numbered (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) in boldface. All figures must have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend, defined as description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. (A), (B), (C), etc.)

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch (dpi) for RBG coloured, 600 dpi for greyscale and 1,200 dpi for line art. Although there is no file-size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting the legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system, if necessary.

The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files, should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

Tables, lists and equations

Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted in the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. For listing items within the main body of the manuscript, please use Roman numbers in parenthesis (e.g. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), etc.).

Supplementary files

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. These materials, figures or additional information are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain ‘suppl. info’. Videos may be included in this section.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. Some examples:

  1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
  2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman[5].
  3. This effect has been widely studied[1–3,7].

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. These should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications, and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis.

E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished)


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section. The EndNote output style of IJB can be downloaded at here.

For the reference list, all authors must be stated. Authors being referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.) and sequenced according to the order they appear as the in-text citations. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s), followed by year of publication, title of publication, abbreviated journal name in italics, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors as the italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning "and others"). If the DOI is available, please include it after the page range. Examples of references for different types of publications are as follows;


Journal article (print) with one to three authors:

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

Journal article (print) with more than three authors:

Gamelin F X, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

Journal article (online) with one to three authors:

Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9.

Journal article (online) with more than three authors:

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen T S S, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.


Book with one to three authors:

Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.

Book with more than three authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry M J, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.

Chapter or article in book

Knowles M S, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.


Preprint article with one to three authors:

Ulgen A, Gurkut O, Li W, 2019, Potential Predictive Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes from a North Cyprus Cohort Analysis. medRxiv.

Preprint article with more than three authors:

Wu S, Sun P, Li R, et al., 2020, Epidemiological Development of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China and Its Forecast. medRxiv.


Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers:

Chang S S, Liaw L and Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.

Conference proceedings (from electronic database):

Wang T, Cook C and Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009 (SENSORCOM-
, 82–85.

Online document with author names:

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf

Online document without author name:

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


Standards Australia Online, 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.

Government report:

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Government report (online):

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,

No author:

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.

Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


Copyright Notice


The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.



NOTE: Starting from Volume 7 Issue 3 (2021), all articles published by International Journal of Bioprinting will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). In order to allow unrestricted reuse of article content and remove the barriers of mining article content for research, the new commercial CC BY 4.0 license will replace the default Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) that has been in use since the inception of the journal.

International Journal of Bioprinting publishes accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by International Journal of Bioprinting agree to have the CC BY 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for any purpose, including commercial use. As long as the author and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute, reuse and transform the content.

For more information, refer to the journal’s Copyright and License section.


Privacy Statement

The names and other email addresses entered on the journal website will be used for the intended purpose of this publication and will not be provided to other parties for any purpose.


Focus and Scope

International Journal of Bioprinting is an international journal covering the technology, science and clinical application of the broadly defined field of Bioprinting. Bioprinting is defined as the use of 3D printing technology with materials that incorporate viable living cells or biological elements to produce tissue or biotechnological products.

We are interested in the scientific topics spanning all stages of bioprinting process from concept creation to fabrication and beyond. Knowledge generated in these researches must be related to bioprinting.

The journal publishes original research articles on basic and applied research as well as associated social implications of this research. The journal also publishes brief commentaries and reviews. Articles focusing on the practical applications of 3D-printed products are similarly welcome.

Examples of relevant topics include but are not limited to:

Information technologies and basic research

  • Medical scanning and imaging for printable format
  • Data security and validation in medical additive manufacturing
  • Logistic management in bioprinting
  • Mass customization design methodology or platform technology
  • Blueprint for organ printing
  • Automated algorithm for 3D modelling of bioprintable files
  • Research models (e.g. cancer, pre-surgical evaluation, etc.)

Materials and formulation

  • New material and method of preparation
  • Hybrid and composite material system
  • Evaluation technologies for bioprinting process and bioprinted product
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired design and material system
  • Interaction of processing and materials
  • Post-processing of bioprinted medical constructs

Cell source and biotechnology for additive manufacturing

  • Cell source research
  • Large-scale or high throughput cell culture techniques
  • Tissue spheroid research (modelling, analysis, measurement, biological observation, characterization)
  • Interaction of cell-material

3D Bioprinting technologies

  • Bioprinting technologies or 3D printing techniques for direct manipulation of cells and biological elements
  • New printing systems or new printing methodology
  • Optimization methodology 

New design and fabrication paradigm

  • Hybrid approach in medical additive manufacturing
  • Information technologies and software in
  • Architectural design
  • Real time and non-invasive monitoring techniques
  • Maturation techniques of printed construct
  • Bioreactor for printed construct

Applied research purpose & evaluation of 3D printed products

  • Implants and prosthetics
  • Bioprinting
  • Biological tissue model for toxicology testing, drug delivery, drug production-related
  • Scaffold for tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Medical imaging purposes (e.g. 3D-printed probes)
  • Bionic organ
  • Organ printing
  • Personalized drug
  • Biomodels for surgical training and planning
  • Exoskeleton
  • Further optimisation/advantages/limitations
  • Education

Associated social implications

  • Ethics
  • Economic relationships and shifts
  • Policies and regulation
  • Intellectual property (IP-copyright, design protection, patents, and trademarks), licensing
  • Business (e.g. chain supply, management)
  • Environmental impact
  • Community sentiments to 3D-printed products (e.g. healthcare providers, users, etc.)


Peer Review Process

All manuscripts submitted to International Journal of Bioprinting will follow the following procedure:

  • Initial submission is reviewed by in-house editors to ensure adherence to journal policies and for double-blind review
  • Editor-in-chief decides on the manuscript to be sent out for review process and assigns the manuscript to one of the editors according to the particular topic.
  • Editor assigns reviewers from inside the editorial board or outside depending on the topic.
  • After evaluations by the reviewers have been received, the editor-in-chief makes one of the following recommendations: accept, minor revision, major revision, reject and resubmit, and reject.
  • If decision is minor revision, the authors have 7 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • If decision is major revision, the authors have 14 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • Upon resubmission, the same procedure is applied as for the initial submission.
  • Authors may appeal for a rejected submission. Appeal requests must be made in writing to with detailed reasons for the appeal and point by point responses to the reviewers remarks. Decisions on appeals are final without exception.
  • For all manuscripts accepted for publication, the peer review process will be deemed to be completed. The manuscript will proceed to be copyedited, layout edited and proofread before being published online.

Note: You may suggest up to four academically qualified reviewers for consideration. Please insert the current contact details of the reviewer and state the reason(s) for recommendation under the "Comments for the Editor" section. However, please take note that the Editorial team strives to ensure the peer review process is fair and unbiased and hence, there is no guarantee that a recommended reviewer will be approached to perform the peer review.


Publication Frequency



Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.




Special Issue: Additive Manufacturing of Functional Biomaterials--Call for Papers


Dear Colleagues

Additive manufacturing (AM) of biomaterials has been developing rapidly in the last two decades. This is due to many benefits in both fabrication techniques, which give unique freedom in customization, and bio-based materials for developing green and sustainable products. Biomaterials currently have a wide range of applications in biomedical engineering, bioimplants, biosensors, packaging industry, etc. The application of functional biomaterials can provide a unique capability to fabricate active products that can transform from one state/shape to another. Therefore, this smart behavior can be applied in the design and manufacturing of products with intended functionalities.

We invite the submission of full-length papers of original research contributions, review papers, and communications that are of high quality, impact, and novelty as well as being interesting for wide audiences of scientific and technological communities. Potential topics for this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The latest developments in functional biomaterials for AM processes;
  • Novel 3D/4D printing techniques and technologies for the fabrication of high-quality biobased products;
  • Theoretical and experimental research, knowledge, and new ideas in design for functional bioproducts using AM technology;
  • Mathematical modeling or numerical simulation to predict/optimize the functionality of AMed biomaterials;

Development in characterization methods for AMed biomaterials

Posted: 2022-04-15 More...

Special Issue: 3D Bioprinting Hydrogels and Organ-On-Chip--Call for Papers


Dear Colleagues

This special issue is oriented to all types of design and characterization of 3D bioprinting and organ-on-chip platforms, with printed tissue models and/or miniaturized microfluidics, to approach biological and physiological parameters of the in vivo tissue counterparts. Special attention will be given but will not be limited to the development of biocompatible hydrogel polymer bio-inks and microsystems engineering setups to achieve relevant functional tissues, by having understanding on material science and technological applications.

Posted: 2022-04-07 More...

Special Issue: Near-field Electrospinning and Melt Electrowriting for Biotechnology and Biomedicine--Call for Papers


Dear Colleagues

Near-field electrospinning and melt electrowriting offer new possibilities to build 3D shapes from polymeric nano- or microfibers. Opposite to conventional electrospinning, near-field electrospinning enables combining very fine fibers with much larger pore sizes, tailored according to the requirements of cells, which makes such scaffolds highly interesting for cell culture and tissue engineering applications. Melt electrowriting can be used to draw microfibers fibers from a solution or a melt through an electrostatic field and to deposit them with high accuracy.

This special issue is open to new theoretical and experimental findings related to near-field electrospinning, melt electrowriting and related techniques for applications in biotechnology and biomedicine, such as printing scaffolds for tissue engineering and cell culture, producing mesh implants, microfluidic channels, and others.

Posted: 2022-03-29 More...
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