3D-Printing-Assisted Extraluminal Anti-Reflux Diodes for Preventing Vesicoureteral Reflux through Double-J Stents

Jihun Lee, Jaebum Sung, Jung Ki Jo, Hongyun So

Article ID: 549
Vol 8, Issue 2, 2022, Article identifier:

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This paper presents novel umbrella-shaped flexible devices to prevent vesicoureteral reflux along double-J stents, which is a backward flow of urine from the bladder to the kidney and is a critical issue in patients with urinary stones. The anti-reflux devices were designed to mechanically attach to the stent and were manufactured using three-dimensional (3D) printing and polymer casting methods. Based on the umbrella shapes, four different devices were manufactured, and the antireflux efficiency was demonstrated through in vitro experiments using a urination model. Consequently, penta-shaped devices exhibited the best anti-reflux performance (44% decrease in reflux compared to the stent without the device), and maximum efficiency occurred when the device was attached near the bladder-ureter junction. In addition, a disadvantage of 3D printing (i.e., unwanted rough surface) helped the device strongly adhere to the surface of the stent during the insertion operation. Finally, long-term soaking experiments revealed that the fabricated devices were mechanically robust and chemically stable (safe) even being soaked in urine for 4 weeks. The findings of this study support the use of additive manufacturing to make various flexible and biocompatible urological devices to mitigate critical issues in patients with urinary stones.


Vesicoureteral reflux, Double-J stent, 3D printing, Anti-reflux diode, Urology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v8i2.549


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