Bio-assembling and Bioprinting for Engineering Microvessels from the Bottom Up

Xiaoming Liu, Tao Yue, Masaru Kojima, Qiang Huang, Tatsuo Arai

Article ID: 366
Vol 7, Issue 3, 2021, Article identifier:366

VIEWS - 584 (Abstract) 120 (PDF)


Blood vessels are essential in transporting nutrients, oxygen, metabolic wastes, and maintaining the homeostasis of the whole human body. Mass of engineered microvessels is required to deliver nutrients to the cells included in the constructed large three-dimensional (3D) functional tissues by diffusion. It is a formidable challenge to regenerate microvessels and build a microvascular network, mimicking the cellular viabilities and activities in the engineered organs with traditional or existing manufacturing techniques. Modular tissue engineering adopting the “bottom-up” approach builds one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) modular tissues in micro scale first and then uses these modules as building blocks to generate large tissues and organs with complex but indispensable microstructural features. Building the microvascular network utilizing this approach could be appropriate and adequate. In this review, we introduced existing methods using the “bottom-up” concept developed to fabricate microvessels including bio-assembling powered by different micromanipulation techniques and
bioprinting utilizing varied solidification mechanisms. We compared and discussed the features of the artificial microvessels engineered by these two strategies from multiple aspects. Regarding the future development of engineering the microvessels from the bottom up, potential directions were also concluded.


Microvessels; Bio-assembling; Bioprinting; Bottom-up; Tissue engineering

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