Bioinks for 3D Bioprinting: A Scientometric Analysis of Two Decades of Progress

Sara Cristina Pedroza-González, Marisela Rodriguez-Salvador, Baruc Emet Pérez Benítez, Mario Moisés Alvarez, Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

Article ID: 337
Vol 7, Issue 2, 2021, Article identifier:337

VIEWS - 2886 (Abstract) 178 (PDF) 39 (Supp.File 1) 55 (Supp.File 2)


This scientometric analysis of 393 original papers published from January 2000 to June 2019 describes the development and use of bioinks for 3D bioprinting. The main trends for bioink applications and the primary considerations guiding the selection and design of current bioink components (i.e., cell types, hydrogels, and additives) were reviewed. The cost, availability, practicality, and basic biological considerations (e.g., cytocompatibility and cell attachment) are the most popular parameters guiding bioink use and development. Today, extrusion bioprinting is the most widely used bioprinting technique. The most reported use of bioinks is the generic characterization of bioink formulations or bioprinting technologies (32%), followed by cartilage bioprinting applications (16%). Similarly, the cell-type choice is mostly generic, as cells are typically used as models to assess bioink formulations or new bioprinting methodologies rather than to fabricate specific tissues. The cell-binding motif arginine-glycine-aspartate is the most common bioink additive. Many articles reported the development of advanced functional bioinks for specific biomedical applications; however, most bioinks remain the basic compositions that meet the simple criteria: Manufacturability and essential biological performance. Alginate and gelatin methacryloyl are the most popular hydrogels that meet these criteria. Our analysis suggests that present-day bioinks still represent a stage of emergence of bioprinting technology.


Bioinks, Bioprinting, Scientometrics, Tissue engineering, Organ


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