Rational Design of a Triple-Layered Coaxial Extruder System: in silico and in vitro Evaluations Directed Toward Optimizing Cell Viability


  • Christian Silva Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
  • Carlos J. Cortés-Rodriguez Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá 111321, Colombia
  • Jonas Hazur Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058, Germany
  • Supachai Reakasame Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058, Germany
  • Aldo R. Boccaccini Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91058, Germany




Three-dimensional bioprinting, Coaxial nozzle, Vascularized tissues, Tissue-engineered vessels, Biomaterials


Biofabrication is a rapidly evolving field whose main goal is the manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden constructs that closely mimic tissues and organs. Despite recent advances on materials and techniques directed toward the achievement of this goal, several aspects such as tissue vascularization and prolonged cell functionality are limiting bench-tobedside translation. Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting has been devised as a promising biofabrication technology to overcome these limitations, due to its versatility and wide availability. Here, we report the development of a triple-layered coaxial nozzle for use in the biomanufacturing of vascular networks and vessels. The design of the coaxial nozzle was first optimized toward guaranteeing high cell viability upon extrusion. This was done with the aid of in silico evaluations and their subsequent experimental validation by investigating the bioprinting of an alginate-based bioink. Results confirmed that the values for pressure distribution predicted by in silico experiments resulted in cell viabilities above 70% and further demonstrated the effect of layer thickness and extrusion pressure on cell viability. Our work paves the way for the rational design of multi-layered coaxial extrusion systems to be used in biofabrication approaches to replicate the very complex structures found in native organs and tissues.


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