Table of Contents

Special Section: Research and Applications of 3D Printing and Bioprinting for Covid-19

Short Communications

by Haijun He, Min Gao, Balázs Illés, Kolos Molnar
892 Views, 156 PDF Downloads, 46 Suppl. File Downloads
Face masks are becoming one of the most useful personal protective equipment with the outbreak of the coronavirus (CoV) pandemic. The entire world is experiencing shortage of disposable masks and melt-blown non-woven fabrics, which is the raw material of the mask filter. Recyclability of the discarded mask is also becoming a big challenge for the environment. Here, we introduce a facile method based on electrospinning and three-dimensional printing to make changeable and biodegradable mask filters. We printed polylactic acid (PLA) polymer struts on a PLA nanofiber web to fabricate a nanoporous filter with a hierarchical structure and transparent look. The transparent look overcomes the threatening appearance of the masks that can be a feasible way of reducing the social trauma caused by the current CoV disease-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigated the effects of nozzle temperature on the optical, mechanical, and morphological and filtration properties of the nanoporous filter.

Review Articles

by Anastasia Shpichka, Polina Bikmulina, Maria Peshkova, Nastasia Kosheleva, Irina Zurina, Ensieh Zahmatkesh, Niloofar Khoshdel-Rad, Marina Lipina, Elena Golubeva, Massoud Vosough, Peter Timashev
1960 Views, 203 PDF Downloads

While the number of studies related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is constantly growing, it is essential to provide a framework of modeling viral infections. Therefore, this review aims to describe the background presented by earlier used models for viral studies and an approach to design an “ideal” tissue model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to the previous successful achievements in antiviral research and tissue engineering, combining the emerging techniques such as bioprinting, microfluidics, and organoid formation are considered to be one of the best approaches to form in vitro tissue models. The fabrication of an integrated multi-tissue bioprinted platform tailored for SARS-CoV-2 infection can be a great breakthrough that can help defeat coronavirus disease in 2019.

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Original Articles

by H. Kursat Celik, Ozkan Kose, Mihaela-Elena Ulmeanu, Allan E.W. Rennie, Thomas N. Abram, Ibrahim Akinci
1143 Views, 306 PDF Downloads

During the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, the demand for specific medical equipment such as personal protective equipment has rapidly exceeded the available supply around the world. Specifically, simple medical equipment such as medical gloves, aprons, goggles, surgery masks, and medical face shields have become highly in demand in the health-care sector in the face of this rapidly developing pandemic. This difficult period strengthens the social solidarity to an extent parallel to the escalation of this pandemic. Education and government institutions, commercial and noncommercial organizations and individual homemakers have produced specific medical equipment by means of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which is the fastest way to create a product, providing their support for urgent demands within the health-care services. Medical face shields have become a popular item to produce, and many design variations and prototypes have been forthcoming. Although AM technology can be used to produce several types of noncommercial equipment, this rapid manufacturing approach is limited by its longer production time as compared to conventional serial/mass production and the high demand. However, most of the individual designer/maker-based face shields are designed with little appreciation of clinical needs and nonergonomic. They also lack of professional product design and are not designed according to AM (Design for AM [DfAM]) principles. Consequently, the production time of up to 4 – 5 h for some products of these designs is needed. Therefore, a lighter, more ergonomic, single frame medical face shield without extra components to assemble would be useful, especially for individual designers/makers and noncommercial producers to increase productivity in a shorter timeframe. In this study, a medical face shield that is competitively lighter, relatively more ergonomic, easy to use, and can be assembled without extra components (such as elastic bands, softening materials, and clips) was designed. The face shield was produced by AM with a relatively shorter production time. Subsequently, finite element analysis-based structural design verification was performed, and a three-dimensional (3D) prototype was produced by an original equipment manufacturer 3D printer (Fused Deposition Modeling). This study demonstrated that an original face shield design with <10 g material usage per single frame was produced in under 45 min of fabrication time. This research also provides a useful product DfAM of simple medical equipment such as face shields through advanced engineering design, simulation, and AM applications as an essential approach to battling coronavirus-like viral pandemics.

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Original Articles

by Elizabeth G. Bishop, Simon James Leigh
1121 Views, 154 PDF Downloads

The global coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has led to an international shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), with traditional supply chains unable to cope with the significant demand leading to critical shortfalls. A number of open and crowdsourcing initiatives have sought to address this shortfall by producing equipment such as protective face shields using additive manufacturing techniques such as fused filament fabrication (FFF). This paper reports the process of designing and manufacturing protective face shields using large-scale additive manufacturing (LSAM) to produce the major thermoplastic components of the face shield. LSAM offers significant advantages over other additive manufacturing technologies in bridge manufacturing scenarios as a true transition between prototypes and mass production techniques such as injection molding. In the context of production of COVID-19 face shields, the ability to produce the optimized components in under 5 min compared to what would typically take 1 – 2 h using another additive manufacturing technologies meant that significant production volume could be achieved rapidly with minimal staffing.

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Regular Section

Review Articles

by Soja Saghar Soman, Sanjairaj Vijayavenkataraman
846 Views, 270 PDF Downloads
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and advancements in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enable scientists to reprogram somatic cells to iPSCs and 3D print iPSC-derived organ constructs with native tissue architecture and function. iPSCs and iPSC-derived cells suspended in hydrogels (bioinks) allow to print tissues and organs for downstream medical applications. The bioprinted human tissues and organs are extremely valuable in regenerative medicine as bioprinting of autologous iPSC-derived organs eliminates the risk of immune rejection with organ transplants. Disease modeling and drug screening in bioprinted human tissues will give more precise information on disease mechanisms, drug efficacy, and drug toxicity than experimenting on animal models. Bioprinted iPSC-derived cancer tissues will aid in the study of early cancer development and precision oncology to discover patient-specific drugs. In this review, we present a brief summary of the combined use of two powerful technologies, iPSC technology, and 3D bioprinting in health-care applications.
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Review Articles

by Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini, Vishwesh Dikshit, Yi Zhang
677 Views, 127 PDF Downloads

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing has markedly enhanced the functionality of bioreactors by offering the capability of manufacturing intricate architectures, which changes the way of conducting in vitro biomodeling and bioanalysis. As 3D-printing technologies become increasingly mature, the architecture of 3D-printed bioreactors can be tailored to specific applications using different printing approaches to create an optimal environment for bioreactions. Multiple functional components have been combined into a single bioreactor fabricated by 3D-printing, and this fully functional integrated bioreactor outperforms traditional methods. Notably, several 3D-printed bioreactors systems have demonstrated improved performance in tissue engineering and drug screening due to their 3D cell culture microenvironment with precise spatial control and biological compatibility. Moreover, many microbial bioreactors have also been proposed to address the problems concerning pathogen detection, biofouling, and diagnosis of infectious diseases. This review offers a reasonably comprehensive review of 3D-printed bioreactors for in vitro biological applications. We compare the functions of bioreactors fabricated by various 3D-printing modalities and highlight the benefit of 3D-printed bioreactors compared to traditional methods.

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Original Articles

by Christian Augusto Silva, Carlos J Cortés-Rodriguez, Jonas Hazur, Supachai Reakasame, Aldo R. Boccaccini
742 Views, 131 PDF Downloads

Biofabrication is a rapidly evolving field whose main goal is the manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden constructs that closely mimic tissues and organs. Despite recent advances on materials and techniques directed toward the achievement of this goal, several aspects such as tissue vascularization and prolonged cell functionality are limiting bench-tobedside translation. Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting has been devised as a promising biofabrication technology to overcome these limitations, due to its versatility and wide availability. Here, we report the development of a triple-layered coaxial nozzle for use in the biomanufacturing of vascular networks and vessels. The design of the coaxial nozzle was first optimized toward guaranteeing high cell viability upon extrusion. This was done with the aid of in silico evaluations and their subsequent experimental validation by investigating the bioprinting of an alginate-based bioink. Results confirmed that the values for pressure distribution predicted by in silico experiments resulted in cell viabilities above 70% and further demonstrated the effect of layer thickness and extrusion pressure on cell viability. Our work paves the way for the rational design of multi-layered coaxial extrusion systems to be used in biofabrication approaches to replicate the very complex structures found in native organs and tissues.

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Original Articles

by Aira Matsugaki, Tadaaki Matsuzaka, Ami Murakami, Pan Wang, Takayoshi Nakano
466 Views, 93 PDF Downloads
Although three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques enable the construction of various living tissues and organs, the generation of bone-like oriented microstructures with anisotropic texture remains a challenge. Inside the mineralized bone matrix, osteocytes play mechanosensing roles in an ordered manner with a well-developed lacunar-canaliculi system. Therefore, control of cellular arrangement and dendritic processes is indispensable for construction of artificially controlled 3D bone-mimetic architecture. Herein, we propose an innovative methodology to induce controlled arrangement of osteocyte dendritic processes using the laminated layer method of oriented collagen sheets, combined with a custom-made fluid flow stimuli system. Osteocyte dendritic processes showed elongation depending on the competitive directional relationship between flow and substrate. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the successful construction of the anisotropic bone-mimetic microstructure and further demonstrate that the dendritic process formation in osteocytes can be controlled with selective fluid flow stimuli, specifically by regulating focal adhesion. Our results demonstrate how osteocytes adapt to mechanical stimuli by optimizing the anisotropic maturation of dendritic cell processes.
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Original Articles

by Justin Jia Yao Tan, Cheng Pau Lee, Michinao Hashimoto
573 Views, 87 PDF Downloads
Gelatin and transglutaminase (TG) ink is increasingly popular in direct ink writing three-dimensional (3D) printing of cellular scaffolds and edible materials. The use of enzymes to crosslink gelatin chains removes the needs for toxic crosslinkers and bypasses undesired side reactions due to the specificity of the enzymes. However, their application in 3D printing remains challenging primarily due to the rapid crosslinking that leads to the short duration of printable time. In this work, we propose the use of gelatin preheated for 7 days to extend the duration of the printing time of the gelatin ink. We first determined the stiffness of freshly prepared gelatin (FG) and preheated gelatin (PG) (5 – 20% w/w) containing 5% w/w TG. We selected gelatin hydrogels made from 7.5% w/w FG and 10% w/w PG that yielded similar stiffness for subsequent studies to determine the duration of the printable time. PG inks exhibited longer time required for gelation and a smaller increase in viscosity with time than FG inks of similar stiffness. Our study suggested the advantage to preheat gelatin to enhance the printability of the ink, which is essential for extrusion-based bioprinting and food printing.
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Erratum

Erratum
by International Journal of Bioprinting
61 Views, 122 PDF Downloads
Erratum
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Corrigendum

Corrigendum
by International Journal of Bioprinting
38 Views, 23 PDF Downloads
Corrigendum
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