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Editorials

Publication Trends in 3D Bioprinting and 3D Food Printing
by Chee Kai Chua
157 Views, 80 PDF Downloads
Publication Trends in 3D Bioprinting and 3D Food Printing
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Perspective Articles

by Chunling Yu, Jingchao Jiang
405 Views, 134 PDF Downloads

Recently, three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies have been widely applied in industry and our daily lives. The term 3D bioprinting has been coined to describe 3D printing at the biomedical level. Machine learning is currently becoming increasingly active and has been used to improve 3D printing processes, such as process optimization, dimensional accuracy analysis, manufacturing defect detection, and material property prediction. However, few studies have been found to use machine learning in 3D bioprinting processes. In this paper, related machine learning methods used in 3D printing are briefly reviewed and a perspective on how machine learning can also benefit 3D bioprinting is discussed. We believe that machine learning can significantly affect the future development of 3D bioprinting and hope this paper can inspire some ideas on how machine learning can be used to improve 3D bioprinting.

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Review Articles

by Jiumeng Zhang, Qipeng Hu, Shuai Wang, Jie Tao, Maling Gou
930 Views, 302 PDF Downloads
An additive manufacturing technology based on projection light, digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing, has been widely applied in the field of medical products production and development. The precision projection light, reflected by a million pixels instead of a focused point, provides this technology both printing accuracy and printing speed. In particular, this printing technology provides a relatively milder condition to cells due to its non-direct contact. This review introduces the DLP-based 3D printing technology and its applications in medicine, including precise medical devices, functionalized artificial tissues and specific drug delivery systems. The products are particularly discussed for their significance for medicine. We believe that this technology provides a potential tool for biological research and clinical medicine, while challenges of scale-up and regulatory approval are also discussed.
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Review Articles

by Bin Zhang, Rodica Cristescu, Douglas B. Chrisey, Roger J. Narayan
353 Views, 106 PDF Downloads

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been emerging as a new technology for scaffold fabrication to overcome the problems associated with the undesirable microstructure associated with the use of traditional methods. Solvent-based extrusion (SBE) 3D printing is a popular 3D printing method, which enables incorporation of cells during the scaffold printing process. The scaffold can be customized by optimizing the scaffold structure, biomaterial, and cells to mimic the properties of natural tissue. However, several technical challenges prevent SBE 3D printing from translation to clinical use, such as the properties of current biomaterials, the difficulties associated with simultaneous control of multiple biomaterials and cells, and the scaffold-to-scaffold variability of current 3D printed scaffolds. In this review paper, a summary of SBE 3D printing for tissue engineering (TE) is provided. The influences of parameters such as ink biomaterials, ink rheological behavior, cross-linking mechanisms, and printing parameters on scaffold fabrication are considered. The printed scaffold structure, mechanical properties, degradation, and biocompatibility of the scaffolds are summarized. It is believed that a better understanding of the scaffold fabrication process and assessment methods can improve the functionality of SBE-manufactured 3D printed scaffolds.

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Original Articles

by Enkhtuul Gantumur, Masaki Nakahata, Masaru Kojima, Shinji Sakai
251 Views, 101 PDF Downloads
We report an extrusion-based bioprinting approach, in which stabilization of extruded bioink is achieved through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed cross-linking consuming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) supplied from HRP and glucose. The bioinks containing living cells, HRP, glucose, alginate possessing phenolic hydroxyl (Ph) groups, and cellulose nanofiber were extruded to fabricate 3D hydrogel constructs. Lattice- and human nose-shaped 3D constructs were successfully printed and showed good stability in cell culture medium for over a week. Mouse 10T1/2 fibroblasts enclosed in the printed constructs remained viable after 7 days of culture. It was also able to switch a non-cell-adhesive surface of the printed construct to cell-adhesive surface for culturing cells on it through a subsequent cross-linking of gelatin possessing Ph moieties. These results demonstrate the possibility of utilizing the presented cross-linking method for 3D bioprinting.
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Original Articles

by Yige Huyan, Qin Lian, Tingze Zhao, Dichen Li, Jiankang He
334 Views, 93 PDF Downloads

The skin is the largest human organ, and defects in the skin with a diameter greater than 4 cm do not heal without treatment. Allogeneic skin transplantation has been used to allow wound healing, but many grafts do not survive after implantation, due to multiple complications in the procedure. In the present study, the vascularization of three-dimensional (3D) printed full-thickness skin grafts was investigated. Dermal-epithelial grafts were transplanted into a nude mouse model to evaluate integration with the host tissue and the extent of wound healing. To create microvessels in the skin grafts, a bilayer structure consisting of human dermal fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and microvascular endothelial cells was designed and fabricated using an extruded 3D printer. Human dermal fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells were mixed with gelatin-sodium alginate composite hydrogel as the dermis, and human keratinocytes were mixed with gel as the epithelium. Confocal imaging allowed visualization of the location of the cells in the double-layer skin grafts. A full-thickness wound was created on the backs of nude mice and then covered with a double-layer skin graft. Various groups of mice were tested. Animals were euthanized and tissue samples collected after specified time points. Compared with the control group, wound contraction improved by approximately 10%. Histological analysis demonstrated that the new skin had an appearance similar to that of normal skin and with a significant degree of angiogenesis. The results of the immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the transplanted cells survived and participated in the healing process.

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Original Articles

by J. M. Lee, S. L. Sing, W. Y. Yeong
330 Views, 112 PDF Downloads

Multimaterials deposition, a distinct advantage in bioprinting, overcomes material’s limitation in hydrogel-based bioprinting. Multimaterials are deposited in a build/support configuration to improve the structural integrity of three-dimensional bioprinted construct. A combination of rapid cross-linking hydrogel has been chosen for the build/support setup. The bioprinted construct was further chemically cross-linked to ensure a stable construct after print. This paper also proposes a file segmentation and preparation technique to be used in bioprinting for printing freeform structures.

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Original Articles

by Cijun Shuai, Sheng Li, Shuping Peng, Youwen Yang, Chengde Gao
205 Views, 63 PDF Downloads
Fe is regarded as a promising bone implant material due to inherent degradability and high mechanical strength, but its degradation rate is too slow to match the healing rate of bone. In this work, hydrolytic expansion was cleverly exploited to accelerate Fe degradation. Concretely, hydrolyzable Mg2Si was incorporated into Fe matrix through selective laser melting and readily hydrolyzed in a physiological environment, thereby exposing more surface area of Fe matrix to the solution. Moreover, the gaseous hydrolytic products of Mg2Si acted as an expanding agent and cracked the dense degradation product layers of Fe matrix, which offered rapid access for solution invasion and corrosion propagation toward the interior of Fe matrix. This resulted in the breakdown of protective degradation product layers and even the direct peeling off of Fe matrix. Consequently, the degradation rate for Fe/Mg2Si composites (0.33 mm/y) was significantly improved in comparison with that of Fe (0.12 mm/y). Meanwhile, Fe/Mg2Si composites were found to enable the growth and proliferation of MG-63 cells, showing good cytocompatibility. This study indicated that hydrolytic expansion may be an effective strategy to accelerate the degradation of Fe-based implants.
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Original Articles

by Cijun Shuai, Yang Li, Wenjing Yang, Li Yu, Youwen Yang, Shuping Peng, Pei Feng
329 Views, 83 PDF Downloads

Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) possesses good biocompatibility and bioabsorbability as scaffold material, while slow degradation rate limits its application in bone tissue engineering. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was introduced into the PLLA scaffold prepared by selective laser sintering to accelerate degradation. The reason was that GO with a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups attracted water molecules and transported them into scaffold through the interface microchannels formed between lamellar GO and PLLA matrix. More importantly, hydrogen bonding interaction between the functional groups of GO and the ester bonds of PLLA induced the ester bonds to deflect toward the interfaces, making water molecules attack the ester bonds and thereby breaking the molecular chain of PLLA to accelerate degradation. As a result, some micropores appeared on the surface of the PLLA scaffold, and mass loss was increased from 0.81% to 4.22% after immersing for 4 weeks when 0.9% GO was introduced. Besides, the tensile strength and compressive strength of the scaffolds increased by 24.3% and 137.4%, respectively, due to the reinforced effect of GO. In addition, the scaffold also demonstrated good bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

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Original Articles

by Rodica Cristescu, Irina Negut, Anita Ioana Visan, Alexander K. Nguyen, Andrew Sachan, Peter L. Goering, Douglas B. Chrisey, Roger Narayan
233 Views, 61 PDF Downloads

Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has many benefits over conventional methods (e.g., dip-coating, spin coating, and Langmuir–Blodgett dip-coating) for manufacturing coatings containing pharmacologic agents on medical devices. In particular, the thickness of the coating that is applied to the surface of the medical device can be tightly controlled. In this study, MAPLE was used to deposit rapamycin-polyvinylpyrrolidone (rapamycin-PVP) thin films onto silicon and borosilicate optical glass substrates. Alamar Blue and PicoGreen studies were used to measure the metabolic health and DNA content of L929 mouse fibroblasts as measures of viability and proliferation, respectively. The cells on the MAPLE-deposited rapamycin-PVP surfaces exhibited 70.6% viability and 53.7% proliferation compared to a borosilicate glass control. These data indicate that the antiproliferative properties of rapamycin were maintained after MAPLE deposition.

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