Vol 4, No 2 (2018)

ONLINE FIRST

Table of Contents

Original Articles

by Cijun Shuai, Youwen Yang, Pei Feng, Shuping Peng, Wang Guo, Anjie Min, Chengde Gao
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It is critical to develop a fabrication technology for precisely controlling an interconnected porous structure of scaffolds to mimic the native bone microenvironment. In this work, a novel combined process of additive manufacturing (AM) and chemical etching was developed to fabricate graphene oxide/poly(L-lactic acid) (GO/PLLA) scaffolds with multi-scale porous structure. Specially, AM was used to fabricate an interconnected porous network with pore sizes of hundreds of microns. And the chemical etching in sodium hydroxide solution constructed pores with several microns or even smaller on scaffolds surface. The degradation period of the scaffolds was adjustable via controlling the size and quantity of pores. Moreover, the scaffolds exhibited surprising bioactivity after chemical etching, which was ascribed to the formed polar groups on scaffolds surfaces. Furthermore, GO improved the mechanical strength of the scaffolds.

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Original Articles

by Xiaoxiao Han, Julien Courseaus, Jamel Khamassi, Nadine Nottrodt, Sascha Engelhardt, Frank Jacobsen, Claas Bierwisch, Wolfdietrich Meyer, Torsten Walter, Jürgen Weisser, Raimund Jaeger, Richard Bibb, Russell Harris
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This paper demonstrates the essential and efficient methods to design, and fabricate optimal vascular network for tissue engineering structures based on their physiological conditions. Comprehensive physiological requirements in both micro and macro scales were considered in developing the optimisation design for complex vascular vessels. The optimised design was then manufactured by stereolithography process using materials that are biocompatible, elastic and surface bio-coatable. The materials are self-developed photocurable resin consist of BPA-ethoxylated-diacrylate, lauryl acrylate and isobornylacrylate with Irgacure® 184, the photoinitiator. The optimised vascular vessel offers many advantages: 1) it provides the maximum nutrient supply; 2) it minimises the recirculation areas and 3) it allows the wall shear stress on the vessel in a healthy range. The stereolithography manufactured vascular vessels were then embedded in the hydrogel seeded with cells. The results of in vitro studies show that the optimised vascular network has the lowest cell death rate compared with a pure hydrogel scaffold and a hydrogel scaffold embedded within a single tube in day seven. Consequently, these design and manufacture routes were shown to be viable for exploring and developing a high range complex and specialised artificial vascular networks. 

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