Laser-assisted bioprinting at different wavelengths and pulse durations with a metal dynamic release layer: A parametric study

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Lothar Koch, Ole Brandt, Andrea Deiwick, Boris Chichkov



For more than a decade living cells and biomaterials (typically hydrogels) have been printed with laser-assisted bioprinting. Often, a thin metal layer is applied as laser-absorbing material, called dynamic release layer (DRL). This layer is vaporized by focused laser pulses generating vapor pressure that propels forward a coated biomaterial. Different lasers with laser wavelengths from 193 to 1064 nanometer have been used. As a metal DRL gold, silver, or titanium layers have been used. The applied laser pulse durations were usually in the nanosecond range from 1 to 30 ns. In addition, some studies with femtosecond lasers have been published. However, there are no studies on the effect of all these lasers parameters on bioprinting with a metal DRL, comparing different wavelengths and pulse durations – except one study comparing 500 femtosecond pulses with 15 ns pulses. In this paper, the effects of laser wavelength (355, 532, and 1064 nm) and laser pulse duration (in the range of 8 to 200 ns) are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of laser pulse energy, intensity, and focal spot size are studied. The printed droplet volume, hydrogel jet velocity, and cell viability are analyzed.


bioprinting; laser-assisted bioprinting; laser-induced forward transfer; laser absorption layer; laser parametric study

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Copyright (c) 2017 Lothar Koch, Ole Brandt, Andrea Deiwick, Boris Chichkov

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