Three-Dimensional Printing of Food Foams Stabilized by Hydrocolloids for Hydration in Dysphagia

Amelia Yilin Lee, Aakanksha Pant, Kanitthamniyom Pojchanun, Cheng Pau Lee, Jia An, Michinao Hashimoto, U-Xuan Tan, Chen Huei Leo, Gladys Wong, Chee Kai Chua, Yi Zhang

Article ID: 393
Vol 7, Issue 4, 2021, Article identifier:

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Three-dimensional food printing offers the possibility of modifying the structural design, nutrition, and texture of food, which may be used for consumers with special dietary requirements such as dysphagic patients. One of the food matrices that can be used for liquid delivery to dysphagic patients is food foams. Foams are widely used in different food products to adjust food density, rheological properties, and texture. Foams allow the food to stay in the mouth for sufficient time to provide hydration while minimizing the danger of choking. Our work studies the foam properties and printability of both egg white foams and eggless foams with a strong focus on their foaming properties, rheological properties, printability, and suitability for dysphagic patients. Food hydrocolloid, xanthan gum (XG), is added to improve foam stability and rheological properties so that the inks are printable. Rheological and syneresis properties of the pre-printed foam inks are examined. The texture profile and microstructure properties are studied post-printing. International dysphagia diet standardization initiative tests are carried out to assess the inks’ potential for dysphagic diets. Inks with XG performed better with minimal water seepage, better foam stability, and excellent printability. This suggests that hydrocolloids lead to more stable food foams that are suitable for 3DFP and safe for hydration delivery to dysphagic patients.


Additive manufacturing, 3D food printing, Dysphagia, Hydrocolloids, Food foams, Food inks

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