Graphene Oxide-Embedded Extracellular Matrix- Derived Hydrogel as a Multiresponsive Platform for 3D Bioprinting Applications

Laura Rueda-Gensini, Julian A Serna, Javier Cifuentes, Juan C Cruz, Carolina Muñoz-Camargo

Article ID: 353
Vol 7, Issue 3, 2021, Article identifier:353

VIEWS - 1404 (Abstract) 210 (PDF) 48 (Supp.File)


Decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) have shown enormous potential for the biofabrication of tissues due to their biomimetic properties that promote enhanced cellular interaction and tissue regeneration. However, biofabrication schemes requiring electrostimulation pose an additional constraint due to the insulating properties of natural materials. Here, we propose a methacryloyl-modified decellularized small intestine submucosa (SISMA) hydrogel, embedded with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, for extrusion-based 3D bioprinting applications that require electrostimulation. Methacryloyl biochemical
modification is performed to enhance the mechanical stability of dECM constructs by mediating photo-crosslinking reactions, and a multistep fabrication scheme is proposed to harness the bioactive and hydrophilic properties of GO and electroconductive properties of reduced GO. For this, GO was initially dispersed in SISMA hydrogels by exploiting its hydrophilicity and protein adsorption capabilities, and in situ reduction was subsequently performed to confer electroconductive abilities. SISMA-GO composite hydrogels were successfully prepared with enhanced structural characteristics, as shown by the higher crosslinking degree and increased elastic response upon blue-light exposure. Moreover, GO was homogeneously dispersed without affecting photocrosslinking reactions and hydrogel shear-thinning properties. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were successfully bioprinted in SISMA-GO with high cell viability after 1 week and in situ reduction of GO during this period enhanced the electrical conductivity of these nanostructures. This work demonstrates the potential of SISMA-GO bioinks as bioactive and electroconductive scaffolds for electrostimulation applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.


Extracellular matrix bioink; Graphene oxide; Reduced graphene oxide; Electroconductive hydrogel; Photocrosslinking

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