Exploring Nanofibrous Self-assembling Peptide Hydrogels Using Mouse Myoblast Cells for three-dimensional Bioprinting and Tissue Engineering Applications

Wafaa Arab, Kowther Kahin, Zainab Khan, Charlotte Hauser

Article ID: 198
Vol 5, Issue 2, 2019, Pages

VIEWS - 268 (Abstract) 189 (PDF)


Injured skeletal muscles which lose more than 20% of their volume, known as volumetric muscle loss, can no longer regenerate cells through self-healing. The traditional solution for recovery is through regenerative therapy. As the technology of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting continues to advance, a new approach for tissue transplantation is using biocompatible materials arranged in 3D scaffolds for muscle repair. Ultrashort self-assembling peptide hydrogels compete as a potential biomaterial for muscle tissue formation due to their biocompatibility. In this study, two sequences of ultrashort peptides were analyzed with muscle myoblast cells (C2C12) for cell viability, cell proliferation, and differentiation in 3D cell culture. The peptides were then extruded through a custom-designed robotic 3D bioprinter to create cell-laden 3D structures. These constructs were also analyzed for cell viability through live/dead assay. Results showed that 3D bioprinted structures of peptide hydrogels could be used as tissue platforms for myotube formation – a process necessary for muscle repair.


3D bioprinting, peptide, biomaterials, bioinks, tissue engineering, myoblasts

Full Text:



Choi YJ, Jun YJ, Kim DY, et al., 2019, A 3D Cell Printed Muscle Construct with Tissue-derived Bioink for the Treatment of Volumetric Muscle Loss. Biomaterials, 206:160-9. DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.03.036

Kim JH, Seol YJ, Ko IK, et al., 2018, 3D Bioprinted Human

Skeletal Muscle Constructs for Muscle Function Restoration.

Scientific Reports, 8:12307. DOI 10.1038/s41598-018-


VanDusen KW, Syverud BC, Williams ML, et al., 2014,

Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units for Repair of Volumetric Muscle

Loss in the Tibialis Anterior Muscle of a Rat. Tissue Engineering

Part A, 20(21-22):2920-30. DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2014.0060.

Chua CK, Yeong WY, 2014, Bioprinting: Principles and

Applications. Vol. 1. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing

Co, Inc.

Kwee BJ, Mooney DJ, 2017, Biomaterials for Skeletal Muscle

Tissue Engineering. Current Opinion in Biotechnology,

:16-22. DOI 10.1016/j.copbio.2017.05.003.

Frontera WR, Ochala J, 2015, Skeletal muscle: A Brief Review

of Structure and Function. Calcified Tissue International,

(3):183-95. DOI 10.1007/s00223-014-9915-y.

Beldjilali-Labro M, Garcia AG, Farhat F, et al., 2018,

Biomaterials in Tendon and Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Engineering: Current Trends and Challenges. Materials,

(7):1116. DOI 10.3390/ma11071116.

Relaix F, Zammit PS, 2012, Satellite Cells are Essential for Skeletal

Muscle Regeneration: The Cell on the Edge Returns Centre Stage.

Development, 139(16):2845-56. DOI 10.1242/dev.069088.

Brack AS, Rando TA, 2012, Tissue-specific Stem Cells:

Lessons from the Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell. Cell Stem

Cell, 10(5):504-14. DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.04.001.

Grogan BF, Hsu JR, Consortium STR, 2011, Volumetric

Muscle Loss. JAAOS Journal of the American Academy of

Orthopaedic Surgeons, 19:S35-7. DOI 10.5435/00124635-


Turner NJ, Badylak SF, Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle.

Cell and Tissue Research, 347(3):759-74. DOI 10.1007/


Lynch GS, Schertzer JD, Ryall JG, 2008, Anabolic Agents for

Improving Muscle Regeneration and Function After Injury.

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology,

(7):852-58. DOI 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04955.x.

Järvinen TA, Järvinen TL, Kääriäinen M, et al., 2007, Muscle

Injuries: Optimising Recovery. Best Practice and Research

Clinical Rheumatology, 21(2):317-31. DOI 10.1016/j.


Järvinen TA, Järvinen TL, Kääriäinen M, et al.,

, Muscle Injuries: Biology and Treatment. The

American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(5):745-64.

DOI 10.1177/0363546505274714.

Järvinen TA, Kääriäinen M, Järvinen M, Kalimo H, 2000,

Muscle Strain Injuries. Current Opinion in Rheumatology,

(2):155-61. DOI 10.1097/00002281-200003000-00010.

Corona BT, Wu X, Ward CL, et al., 2013, The Promotion

of a Functional Fibrosis in Skeletal Muscle with Volumetric

Muscle Loss Injury following the Transplantation of muscle-

ECM. Biomaterials, 34(13):3324-35. DOI 10.1016/j.


Manring H, Abreu E, Brotto L, et al., 2014, Novel Excitationcontraction

Coupling Related Genes Reveal Aspects of

Muscle Weakness Beyond Atrophy new Hopes for Treatment

of Musculoskeletal Diseases. Frontiers in Physiology, 5:37.

DOI 10.3389/fphys.2014.00037.

Grasman JM, Zayas MJ, Page RL, et al., 2015, Biomimetic

Scaffolds for Regeneration of Volumetric Muscle Loss

in Skeletal Muscle Injuries. Acta Biomaterialia, 25:2-15.

DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.07.038.

Mase VJ, Hsu JR, Wolf SE, et al., 2010, Clinical Application of

an Acellular Biologic Scaffold for Surgical Repair of a Large,

Traumatic Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Defect. Orthopedics,

(7):511. DOI 10.3928/01477447-20100526-24.

Zorlutuna P, Annabi N, Camci-Unal G, et al., 2012,

Microfabricated Biomaterials for Engineering 3D Tissues.

Advanced Materials, 24(14):1782-804. DOI 10.1002/


Hauser CA, Zhang S, 2010, Designer Self-assembling Peptide

Nanofiber Biological Materials. Chemical Society Reviews,

(8):2780-90. DOI 10.1039/b921448h.

Loo Y, Zhang S, Hauser CA, 2012, From Short Peptides to

Nanofibers to Macromolecular Assemblies in Biomedicine.

Biotechnology Advances, 30(3):593-603. DOI 10.1016/j.


Wu EC, Zhang S, Hauser CA, 2012, Self-assembling

Peptides as Cell-interactive Scaffolds. Advanced Functional

Materials, 22(3):456-68. DOI 10.1002/adfm.201101905.

Hauser CA, Deng R, Mishra A, et al., 2011, Natural Tri-to

Hexapeptides Self-assemble in Water to Amyloid β-type Fiber

Aggregates by Unexpected α-helical Intermediate Structures.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,

(4):1361-6. DOI 10.1073/pnas.1014796108.

Mishra A, Loo Y, Deng R, et al., 2011, Ultrasmall Natural

Peptides Self-assemble to Strong Temperature-resistant

Helical Fibers in Scaffolds Suitable for Tissue Engineering.

Nano Today, 6(3):232-9. DOI 10.1016/j.nantod.2011.06.010.

Pollot BE, Rathbone CR, Wenke JC, et al., 2018, Natural

Polymeric Hydrogel Evaluation for Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Engineering. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B:

Applied Biomaterials, 106(2):672-9. DOI 10.1002/jbm.b.33859.

Kahin K, Khan Z, Albagami M, et al., 2019, Development of

a Robotic 3D Bioprinting and Microfluidic Pumping System

for Tissue and Organ Engineering. Microfluidics, Biomems,

and Medical Microsystems, Doi 10.1117/12.2507237.

Khan Z, Kahin K, Rauf S, et al., 2018, Optimization of a

D Bioprinting Process Using Ultrashort Peptide Bioinks.

International Journal of Bioprinting, 5(1):1-3. DOI 10.18063/


Brenneisen P, Blaudschun R, Gille J, et al., 2003, Essential

role of an Activator Protein-2 (AP-2)/Specificity Protein 1

(Sp1) Cluster in the UVB-mediated Induction of the Human

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in HaCaT Keratinocytes.

Biochemical Journal, 369(2):341-9. DOI 10.1042/bj20021032.

Hendriks J, Riesle J, van Blitterswijk CA, 2007, Co-culture in

Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Journal of Tissue Engineering

and Regenerative Medicine, 1(3):170-8. DOI 10.1002/term.19.

Loo Y, Lakshmanan A, Ni M, et al., 2015, Peptide Bioink:

Self-assembling Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Three-dimensional

Organotypic Cultures. Nano Letters, 15(10):6919-25.

DOI 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02859.

Jayawarna V, Ali M, Jowitt TA, et al., 2006, Nanostructured

Hydrogels for Three-dimensional Cell Culture Through Selfassembly

of Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl Dipeptides. Advanced

Materials, 18(5):611-4. DOI 10.1002/adma.200501522.

Arab W, Rauf S, Al-Harbi O, et al., 2018, Novel Ultrashort

Self-Assembling Peptide Bioinks for 3D Culture

of Muscle Myoblast Cells. International Journal of

Bioprinting, 4(2):129. DOI 10.18063/ijb.v4i1.129.

Lakshmanan A, Cheong DW, Accardo A, et al., 2013,

Aliphatic Peptides Show Similar Self-assembly to Amyloid

Core Sequences, Challenging the Importance of Aromatic

Interactions in Amyloidosis. Proceedings of the National

Academy of Sciences, 110(2):519-24. DOI 10.1073/


Chen H, Zhong J, Wang J, et al., 2019, Enhanced Growth

and Differentiation of Myoblast Cells Grown on E-jet 3D

Printed Platforms. International Journal of Nanomedicine,

:937-50. DOI 10.2147/ijn.s193624.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v5i2.198


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Charlotte Hauser, Wafaa Arab, Kowther Kahin, Zainab Khan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.