Open Journal Systems





Three-dimensional-printing for microfluidics or the other way around?

VIEWS - 36 (Abstract) 16 (PDF)
Yi Zhang

Abstract


As microfluidic devices are designed to tackle more intricate tasks, the architecture of microfluidic devices
becomes more complex, and more sophisticated fabrication techniques are in demand. Therefore, it is sensible to fabricate
microfluidic devices by three-dimensional (3D)-printing, which is well-recognized for its unique ability to monolithically
fabricate complex structures using a near-net-shape additive manufacturing process. Many 3D-printed microfluidic platforms
have been demonstrated but can 3D-printed microfluidics meet the demanding requirements in today’s context, and has
microfluidics truly benefited from 3D-printing? In contrast to 3D-printed microfluidics, some go the other way around and
exploit microfluidics for 3D-printing. Many innovative printing strategies have been made possible with microfluidicsenabled
3D-printing, although the limitations are also largely evident. In this perspective article, we take a look at the current
development in 3D-printed microfluidics and microfluidics-enabled 3D printing with a strong focus on the limitations of the
two technologies. More importantly, we attempt to identify the innovations required to overcome these limitations and to
develop new high-value applications that would make a scientific and social impact in the future.


Keywords


3D-printing; Bioprinting; Microfluidics

Full Text:

PDF

References


Whitesides GM, 2006, The Origins and the Future of

Microfluidics. Nature, 442(7101):368.

Mitchell P, 2001, Microfluidics-downsizing Large-scale

Biology. Nat Biotechnol, 19(8):717.

Yin H, Marshall D, 2012, Microfluidics for Single Cell

Analysis. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 23(1):110-9.

Weibel DB, Whitesides GM, 2006, Applications of

Microfluidics in Chemical Biology. Curr Opin Chem Biol,

(6):584-91.

Grayson ACR, Shawgo RS, Johnson AM, et al., 2004, A

bioMEMS Review: MEMS Technology for Physiologically

Integrated Devices. Proc IEEE, 92(1):6-21. DOI 10.1109/

jproc.2003.820534.

Ziaie B, Baldi A, Lei M, et al., 2004, Hard and Soft

Micromachining for BioMEMS: Review of Techniques

and Examples of Applications in Microfluidics and Drug

Delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev, 56(2):145-72. DOI 10.1016/j.

addr.2003.09.001.

Shawgo RS, Grayson ACR, Li Y, et al., 2002, BioMEMS for

Drug Delivery. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci, 6(4):329-34.

Tay FE, 2002, Microfluidics and BioMEMS Applications.

Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Bashir R, 2004, BioMEMS: State-of-the-art in Detection,

Opportunities and Prospects. Adv Drug Deliv Rev,

(11):1565-86. DOI 10.1016/j.addr.2004.03.002.

Xia Y, Whitesides GM, 1998, Soft Lithography. Angew Chem

Int Ed, 37(5):550-75.

Unger MA, Chou HP, Thorsen T, et al., 2000, Monolithic

Microfabricated Valves and Pumps by Multilayer Soft

Lithography. Science, 288(5463):113-6. DOI 10.1126/

science.288.5463.113.

Lecault V, White AK, Singhal A, et al., 2012, Microfluidic

Single Cell Analysis: From Promise to Practice. Curr Opin

Chem Biol, 16(3-4):381-90.

Kim P, Kwon KW, Park MC, et al., 2008, Soft Lithography

for Microfluidics: A Review. Biochip J, 2:1-11.

Beebe DJ, Mensing GA, Walker GM, 2002, Physics and

Applications of Microfluidics in Biology. Ann Rev Biomed

Eng, 4(1):261-86.

Minteer SD, 2006, Microfluidic Techniques: Reviews and

Protocols. Vol. 321. New York: Springer Science and

Business Media.

Au AK, Huynh W, Horowitz LF, et al., 2016, 3D-printed

Microfluidics. Angew Chem Int Ed, 55(12):3862-81. DOI

1002/anie.201504382.

Yazdi AA, Popma A, Wong W, et al., 2016, 3D Printing:

An Emerging Tool for Novel Microfluidics and Lab-ona-

chip Applications. Microfluid Nanofluidics, 20(3):50.

DOI 10.1007/s10404-016-1715-4.

Waheed S, Cabot JM, Macdonald NP, et al., 2016, 3D Printed

Microfluidic Devices: Enablers and Barriers. Lab Chip,

(11):1993-2013. DOI 10.1039/c6lc00284f.

Ho CMB, Ng SH, Li KHH, et al., 2015, 3D Printed

Microfluidics for Biological Applications. Lab Chip,

(18):3627-37. DOI 10.1039/c5lc00685f.

Au AK, Bhattacharjee N, Horowitz LF, et al., 2015, 3D-printed

Microfluidic Automation. Lab Chip, 15(8):1934-41.

DOI 10.1039/c5lc00126a.

Bhattacharjee N, Urrios A, Kang S, et al., 2016, The

Upcoming 3D-printing Revolution in Microfluidics. Lab Chip, 16(10):1720-42. DOI 10.1039/c6lc00163g.

Donvito L, Galluccio L, Lombardo A, et al., 2015,

Experimental Validation of a Simple, Low-cost, T-junction

Droplet Generator Fabricated Through 3D Printing.

J Micromech Microeng, 25(3):035013. DOI 10.1088/0960-

/25/3/035013.

Chen C, Wang Y, Lockwood SY, et al., 2014, 3D-printed

Fluidic Devices Enable Quantitative Evaluation of Blood

Components in Modified Storage Solutions for Use in

Transfusion Medicine. Analyst, 139(13):3219-26. DOI

1039/c3an02357e.

Kitson PJ, Rosnes MH, Sans V, et al., 2012, Configurable

D-Printed Millifluidic and Microfluidic ‘Lab on a

Chip’reactionware Devices. Lab Chip, 12(18):3267-71. DOI

1039/c2lc40761b.

Bishop GW, Satterwhite JE, Bhakta S, et al., 2015, 3D-printed

Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flowinjection

Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue

Nanoparticle-modified Electrodes. Anal Chem, 87(10):5437-43.

DOI 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00903.

Takenaga S, Schneider B, Erbay E, et al., 2015, Fabrication

of Biocompatible Lab-on-chip Devices for Biomedical

Applications by Means of a 3D-printing Process.

Physica Status Solidi A, 212(6):1347-52. DOI 10.1002/

pssa.201532053.

Lee W, Kwon D, Choi W, et al., 2015, 3D-printed Microfluidic

Device for the Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria using Sizebased

Separation in Helical Channel with Trapezoid Crosssection.

Sci Rep, 5:7717. DOI 10.1038/srep09701.

Shallan AI, Smejkal P, Corban M, et al., 2014, Costeffective

Three-dimensional Printing of Visibly Transparent

Microchips Within Minutes. Anal Chem, 86(6):3124-30. DOI

1021/ac4041857.

Monaghan T, Harding MJ, Harris RA, et al., 2016,

Customisable 3D Printed Microfluidics for Integrated

Analysis and Optimisation. Lab Chip, 16(17):3362-73. DOI

1039/c6lc00562d.

Cabot JM, Fuguet E, Rosés M, et al., 2015, Novel Instrument

for Automated p K a Determination by Internal Standard

Capillary Electrophoresis. Anal Chem, 87(12):6165-72. DOI

1021/acs.analchem.5b00845.

Gelber MK, Bhargava R, 2015, Monolithic Multilayer

Microfluidics via Sacrificial Molding of 3D-printed Isomalt.

Lab Chip, 15(7):1736-41. DOI 10.1039/c4lc01392a.

Anderson KB, Lockwood SY, Martin RS, et al., 2013, A 3D

Printed Fluidic Device that Enables Integrated Features. Anal

Chem, 85(12):5622-6. DOI 10.1021/ac4009594.

Au AK, Lee W, Folch A, 2014, Mail-order Microfluidics:

Evaluation of Stereolithography for the Production of

Microfluidic Devices. Lab Chip, 14(7):1294-301. DOI

1039/c3lc51360b.

Gong H, Woolley AT, Nordin GP, 2016, High Density 3D

Printed Microfluidic Valves, Pumps, and Multiplexers. Lab

Chip, 16(13):2450-8. DOI 10.1039/c6lc00565a.

Rogers CI, Qaderi K, Woolley AT, et al., 2015, 3D Printed

Microfluidic Devices with Integrated Valves. Biomicrofluidics,

(1):016501. DOI 10.1063/1.4905840.

Keating SJ, Gariboldi MI, Patrick WG, et al., 2016, 3D

Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve. PLoS One,

(8):e0160624. DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0160624.

Sochol R, Sweet E, Glick C, et al., 2016, 3D Printed

Microfluidic Circuitry via Multijet-based Additive

Manufacturing. Lab Chip, 16(4):668-78. DOI 10.1039/

c5lc01389e.

Chen Y, Chan HN, Michael SA, et al., 2017, A Microfluidic

Circulatory System Integrated with Capillary-assisted

Pressure Sensors. Lab Chip, 17(4):653-62. DOI 10.1039/

c6lc01427e.

Bhargava KC, Thompson B, Malmstadt N, 2014, Discrete

Elements for 3D Microfluidics. Proc Natl Acad Sci,

(42):15013-8. DOI 10.1073/pnas.1414764111.

Lee KG, Park KJ, Seok S, et al., 2014, 3D Printed Modules for

Integrated Microfluidic Devices. RSC Adv, 4(62):32876-80.

DOI 10.1039/c4ra05072j.

Vittayarukskul K, Lee AP, 2017, A Truly Lego®-like

Modular Microfluidics Platform. J Micromech Microeng,

(3):035004. DOI 10.1088/1361-6439/aa53ed.

Kirk CG, 1961, Toy Building Brick. Google Patents.

Yuen PK, 2016, A Reconfigurable Stick-n-play Modular

Microfluidic System using Magnetic Interconnects. Lab

Chip, 16(19):3700-7. DOI 10.1039/c6lc00741d.

Tumbleston JR, Shirvanyants D, Ermoshkin N, et al., 2015,

Continuous Liquid Interface Production of 3D Objects.

Science, 347(6228):1349-52. DOI 10.1126/science.aaa2397.

Beauchamp MJ, Nordin GP, Woolley AT, 2017, Moving from

Millifluidic to Truly Microfluidic sub-100-μm Cross-section

D Printed Devices. Anal Bioanal Chem, 409(18):4311-9.

DOI 10.1007/s00216-017-0398-3.

Mazutis L, Gilbert J, Ung WL, et al., 2013, Single-cell

Analysis and Sorting using Droplet-based Microfluidics. Nat

Protoc, 8(5):870. DOI 10.1038/nprot.2013.046.

ASIGA. Available from: https://www.asiga.com/products/

printers/pico. [Last retrieved on 2019 Jun 10].

Lee JM, Zhang M, Yeong WY, 2016, Characterization and Evaluation of 3D Printed Microfluidic Chip for Cell

Processing. Microfluid Nanofluidics, 20(1):5. DOI 10.1007/

s10404-015-1688-8.

Li F, Macdonald NP, Guijt RM, et al., 2019, Increasing the

Functionalities of 3D Printed Microchemical Devices by

Single Material, Multimaterial, and Print-pause-print 3D

Printing. Lab Chip, 19(1):35-49. DOI 10.1039/c8lc00826d.

Colosi C, Shin SR, Manoharan V, et al., 2016, Microfluidic

Bioprinting of Heterogeneous 3D Tissue Constructs using

Low-viscosity Bioink. Adv Mater, 28(4):677-84. DOI

1002/adma.201503310.

Serex L, Bertsch A, Renaud P, 2018, Microfluidics:

A New Layer of Control for Extrusion-based 3D Printing.

Micromachines, 9(2):86. DOI 10.3390/mi9020086.

Hansen CJ, Saksena R, Kolesky DB, et al., 2013, Highthroughput

Printing via Microvascular Multinozzle Arrays.

Adv Mater, 25(1):96-102. DOI 10.1002/adma.201370002.

Ozawa F, Okitsu T, Takeuchi S, 2017, Improvement in the

Mechanical Properties of Cell-laden Hydrogel Microfibers

using Interpenetrating Polymer Networks. ACS Biomater Sci

Eng, 3(3):392-8. DOI 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00619.

Gao Q, He Y, Fu JZ, et al., 2015, Coaxial Nozzle-assisted

D Bioprinting with Built-in Microchannels for Nutrients

Delivery. Biomaterials, 61:203-15. DOI 10.1016/j.

biomaterials.2015.05.031.

Colosi C, Costantini M, Latini R, et al., 2014, Rapid

Prototyping of Chitosan-coated Alginate Scaffolds through

the use of a 3D Fiber Deposition Technique. J Mater Chem B,

(39):6779-91. DOI 10.1039/c4tb00732h.

Gao Q, Liu Z, Lin Z, et al., 2017, 3D Bioprinting of

Vessel-like Structures with Multilevel Fluidic Channels.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng, 3(3):399-408. DOI 10.1021/

acsbiomaterials.6b00643.

Attalla R, Ling C, Selvaganapathy P, 2016, Fabrication and

Characterization of Gels with Integrated Channels using 3D

Printing with Microfluidic Nozzle for Tissue Engineering

Applications. Biomed Microdevices, 18(1):17. DOI 10.1007/

s10544-016-0042-6.

Ghorbanian S, Qasaimeh MA, Akbari M, et al., 2014,

Microfluidic Direct Writer with Integrated Declogging

Mechanism for Fabricating Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs.

Biomed Microdevices, 16(3):387-95. DOI 10.1007/s10544-

-9842-8.

Hardin JO, Ober TJ, Valentine AD, et al., 2015, Microfluidic

Printheads for Multimaterial 3D Printing of Viscoelastic Inks.

Adv Mater, 27(21):3279-84. DOI 10.1002/adma.201570145.

Wei D, Sun J, Bolderson J, et al., 2017, Continuous Fabrication

and Assembly of Spatial Cell-laden Fibers for a Tissue-like

Construct via a Photolithographic-based Microfluidic Chip.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 9(17):14606-17. DOI 10.1021/

acsami.7b00078.

Leng L, McAllister A, Zhang B, et al., 2012, Mosaic

Hydrogels: One-step Formation of Multiscale Soft Materials.

Adv Mater, 24(27):3650-8. DOI 10.1002/adma.201290166.

Ober TJ, Foresti D, Lewis JA, 2015, Active Mixing of

Complex Fluids at the Microscale. Proc Natl Acad Sci,

(40):12293-8. DOI 10.1073/pnas.1509224112.

Collino RR, Ray TR, Fleming RC, et al., 2016, Deposition

of Ordered Two-phase Materials using Microfluidic Print

Nozzles with Acoustic Focusing. Extreme Mech Lett, 8:96-

DOI 10.1016/j.eml.2016.04.003.

Li X, Zhang JM, Yi X, et al., 2018, Multimaterial Microfluidic

D Printing of Textured Composites with Liquid Inclusions.

Adv Sci, 6:1800730. DOI 10.1002/advs.201800730.

Visser CW, Kamperman T, Karbaat LP, et al., 2018, In-air

Microfluidics Enables Rapid Fabrication of Emulsions,

Suspensions, and 3D Modular (bio) Materials. Sci Adv,

(1):eaao1175. DOI 10.1126/sciadv.aao1175.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v5i2.192

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Yi Zhang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.