3D printing for drug manufacturing: A perspective on the future of pharmaceuticals

VIEWS - 132 (Abstract) 93 (PDF)
Eric Lepowsky, Savas Tasoglu

Abstract


Since a three-dimensional (3D) printed drug was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015, there has been a growing interest in 3D printing for drug manufacturing. There are multiple 3D printing methods – including selective laser sintering, binder deposition, stereolithography, inkjet printing, extrusion-based printing, and fused deposition modeling – which are compatible with printing drug products, in addition to both polymer filaments and hydrogels as materials for drug carriers. We see the adaptability of 3D printing as a revolutionary force in the pharmaceutical industry. Release characteristics of drugs may be controlled by complex 3D printed geometries and architectures. Precise and unique doses can be engineered and fabricated via 3D printing according to individual prescriptions. On-demand printing of drug products can be implemented for drugs with limited shelf life or for patient-specific medications, offering an alternative to traditional compounding pharmacies. For these reasons, 3D printing for drug manufacturing is the future of pharmaceuticals, making personalized medicine possible while also transforming pharmacies.

Keywords


three-dimensional (3D) printing; drug dosing and delivery; drug release characteristics; hydrogels; personalized medicine

Full Text:

PDF

References


Norman J, Madurawe R D, Moore C M V, et al., 2017, A new chapter in pharmaceutical manufacturing: 3D-printed drug products. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 108(1): 39–50. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2016.03.001

Wong J Y and Pfahnl A C, 2014, 3D printing of surgical instruments for long-duration space missions. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 85(7): 758–763. http://doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3898.2014

Cesaretti G, Dini E, De Kestelier X, et al., 2014, Building components for an outpost on the Lunar soil by means of a novel 3D printing technology. Acta Astronautica, 93: 430–450. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.07.034

Murphy S V and Atala A, 2014, 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Nature Biotechnology, 32(8): 773–785. http://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2958

Tasoglu S and Demirci U, 2013, Bioprinting for stem cell research. Trends Biotechnol, 31(1): 10–19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2012.10.005

Park J H, Jang J, Lee J S, et al., 2017, Three-dimensional printing of tissue/organ analogues containing living cells. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 45(1): 180–194. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-016-1611-9

Lee V K and Dai G, 2017, Printing of three-dimensional tissue analogs for regenerative medicine. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 45(1): 115–131. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-016-1613-7

Knowlton S, Yenilmez B, Anand S, et al., 2017, Photocrosslinking-based bioprinting: Examining crosslinking schemes. Bioprinting, 5: 10–18. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bprint.2017.03.001

Knowlton S, Yenilmez B and Tasoglu S, 2016, Towards single-step biofabrication of organs on a chip via 3D printing. Trends in Biotechnology, 34(9): 685–688. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.06.005

Knowlton S, Joshi A, Yenilmez B, et al., 2016, Advancing cancer research using bioprinting for tumor-on-a-chip platforms. International Journal of Bioprinting, 2(2): 3–8. http://doi.org/10.18063/IJB.2016.02.003

Knowlton S, Yu C H, Ersoy F, et al., 2016, 3D-printed microfluidic chips with patterned, cell-laden hydrogel constructs. Biofabrication, 8(2): 25019. http://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025019

Knowlton S, Onal S, Yu C H, et al., 2015, Bioprinting for cancer research. Trends in Biotechnology, 33(9): 504–513. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2015.06.007

Knowlton S M, Sencan I, Aytar Y, et al., 2015, Sickle cell detection using a smartphone. Scientific Reports, 5: 15022. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep15022

Knowlton S, Yu C H, Jain N, et al., 2015, Smart-phone based magnetic levitation for measuring densities. PLoS ONE, 10(8): 1–17. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134400

Amin R, Knowlton S, Yenilmez B, et al., 2016, Smart-phone attachable, flow-assisted magnetic focusing device. RSC Advances, 6(96): 93922–93931. http://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA19483D

Amin R, Knowlton S, Hart A, et al., 2016, 3D-printed microfluidic devices. Biofabrication, 8(2): 022001. http://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/022001

Yenilmez B, Knowlton S, Yu C H, et al., 2016, Label-free sickle cell disease diagnosis using a low-cost, handheld platform. Advanced Materials Technologies, 1(5): 1600100. http://doi.org/10.1002/admt.201600100

Knowlton S, Joshi A, Syrrist P, et al., 2017, 3D-printed smartphone-based point of care tool for fluorescence- and magnetophoresis-based cytometry. Lab Chip, 17: 2839–51. http://doi.org/10.1039/C7LC00706J

Yenilmez B, Knowlton S and Tasoglu S, 2016, Self-contained handheld magnetic platform for point of care cytometry in biological samples. Advanced Materials Technologies, 1(9): 1600144. http://doi.org/10.1002/admt.201600144

Giffi C A, Gangula B and Illinda P, 2014, 3D opportunity for the automotive industry. Deloitte University Press, New York.

Katstra W E, Palazzolo R D, Rowe C W, et al., 2000, Oral dosage forms fabricated by Three Dimensional PrintingTM. Journal of Controlled Release, 66(1): 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(99)00225-4

Ursan I D, Chiu L and Pierce A, 2013, Three-dimensional drug printing: A structured review. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 53(2): 136–144. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2013.12217

Chen C, Erkal J L, Gross B C, et al., 2014, Evaluation of 3D printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. Analytical Chemistry, 86(7): 3240–3253. http://doi.org/10.1021/ac403397r

Singh M, Haverinen H M, Dhagat P, et al., 2010, Inkjet printing-process and its applications. Advanced Materials, 22(6): 673–685. http://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200901141

Scoutaris N, Alexander M R, Gellert P R, et al., 2011, Inkjet printing as a novel medicine formulation technique. Journal of Controlled Release, 156(2): 179–185. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.07.033

Alhnan M A, Okwuosa T C, Sadia M, et al., 2016, Emergence of 3D printed dosage forms: Opportunities and challenges. Pharmaceutical Research, 33(8): 1817–1832. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-1933-1

Mazzoli A, 2013, Selective laser sintering in biomedical engineering. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 51(3): 245–256. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-012-1001-x

Tan K H, Chua C K, Leong K F, et al., 2003, Scaffold development using selective laser sintering of polyetheretherketone-hydroxyapatite biocomposite blends. Biomaterials, 24(18): 3115–3123. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00131-5

Pardeike J, Strohmeier D M, Schrödl N, et al., 2011, Nanosuspensions as advanced printing ink for accurate dosing of poorly soluble drugs in personalized medicines. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 420(1): 93–100. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2011.08.033

Goole J and Amighi K, 2016, 3D printing in pharmaceutics: A new tool for designing customized drug delivery systems. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 499(1–2): 376–394. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.12.071

Sokolsky-Papkov M, Agashi K, Olaye A, et al., 2014, Polymer carriers for drug delivery in tissue engineering. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 59(4–5): 187–206. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2007.04.001

Vehse M, Petersen S, Sternberg K, et al., 2014, Drug delivery from poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate scaffolds produced by DLC based micro-stereolithography. Macromolecular Symposia, 346(1): 43–47. http://doi.org/10.1002/masy.201400060

Xing J-F, Zheng M-L and Duan X-M, 2015, Two-photon polymerization microfabrication of hydrogels: An advanced 3D printing technology for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Chemical Society reviews, 44(15): 5031–5039. http://doi.org/10.1039/c5cs00278h

Xu T, Jin J, Gregory C, et al., 2005, Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells. Biomaterials, 26(1): 93–99. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.04.011

Boland T, Xu T, Damon B, et al., 2006, Application of inkjet printing to tissue engineering. Biotechnology Journal, 1(9): 910–917. http://doi.org/10.1002/biot.200600081

Horváth L, Umehara Y, Jud C, et al., 2015, Engineering an in vitro air-blood barrier by 3D bioprinting. Scientific Reports, 5(1): 7974. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep07974

Ng W L, Wang S, Yeong W Y, et al., 2016, Skin bioprinting: Impending reality or fantasy? Trends in Biotechnology, 34(9): 689–699. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.04.006

Lee W, Debasitis J C, Lee V K, et al., 2009, Multi-layered culture of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes through three-dimensional freeform fabrication. Biomaterials, 30(8): 1587–1595. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.12.009

Panwar A and Tan L P, 2016, Current status of bioinks for micro-extrusion-based 3D bioprinting. Molecules, 21(6): 685. http://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21060685

Vaezi M and Chua C K, 2011, Effects of layer thickness and binder saturation level parameters on 3D printing process. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 53(1–4): 275–284. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-010-2821-1

Lam C X F, Mo X M, Teoh S H, et al., 2002, Scaffold development using 3D printing with a starch-based polymer. Materials Science and Engineering C, 20(1–2): 49–56. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0928-4931(02)00012-7

Giordano R A, Wu B M, Borland S W, et al., 1997, Mechanical properties of dense polylactic acid structures fabricated by three dimensional printing. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, 8(1): 63–75. http://doi.org/10.1163/156856297X00588

Antonov E N, Bagratashvili V N, Whitaker M J, et al., 2005, Three-dimensional bioactive and biodegradable scaffolds fabricated by surface-selective laser sintering. Advanced Materials, 17(3): 327–330. http://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200400838

Rimell J T and Marquis P M, 2000, Selective laser sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for clinical applications. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 53(4): 414–420. http://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4636(2000)53:4<414::AID-JBM16>3.0.CO;2-M

Wiria F E, Leong K F, Chua C K, et al., 2007, Poly-ε-caprolactone/hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication via selective laser sintering. Acta Biomaterialia, 3(1): 1–12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2006.07.008

Verbelen L, Dadbakhsh S, Van Den Eynde M, et al., 2016, Characterization of polyamide powders for determination of laser sintering processability. European Polymer Journal, 75: 163–174. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.12.014

Drummer D, Rietzel D and Kühnlein F, 2010, Development of a characterization approach for the sintering behavior of new thermoplastics for selective laser sintering. Physics Procedia, 5(PART B): 533–542. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2010.08.081

Gusarov A V, Laoui T, Froyen L, et al., 2003, Contact thermal conductivity of a powder bed in selective laser sintering. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 46(6): 1103–9. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(02)00370-8

Dupin S, Lame O, Barrès C, et al., 2012, Microstructural origin of physical and mechanical properties of polyamide 12 processed by laser sintering. European Polymer Journal, 48(9): 1611–1621. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2012.06.007

Water J J, Bohr A, Boetker J, et al., 2015, Three-dimensional printing of drug-eluting implants: Preparation of an antimicrobial polylactide feedstock material. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 104(3): 1099–1107. http://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24305

Skowyra J, Pietrzak K and Alhnan M A, 2015, Fabrication of extended-release patient-tailored prednisolone tablets via fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 68: 11–17. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2014.11.009

Genina N, Hollander J, Jukarainen H, et al., 2016, Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 90: 53–63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2015.11.005

Goyanes A, Buanz A B M, Basit A W, et al., 2014, Fused-filament 3D printing (3DP) for fabrication of tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 476(1): 88–92. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.09.044

Goyanes A, Buanz A B M, Hatton G B, et al., 2015, 3D printing of modified-release aminosalicylate (4-ASA and 5-ASA) tablets. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 89: 157–162. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.12.003

Okwuosa T C, Stefaniak D, Arafat B, et al., 2016, A lower temperature FDM 3D printing for the manufacture of patient-specific immediate release tablets. Pharmaceutical Research, 33(11): 2704–2712. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-016-1995-0

Ahmed E M, 2015, Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review. Journal of Advanced Research, 6(2): 105–121. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2013.07.006

Drotleff S, Lungwitz U, Breunig M, et al., 2004, Biomimetic polymers in pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 58(2): 385–407. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2004.03.018

Hoare T R and Kohane D S, 2008, Hydrogels in drug delivery: Progress and challenges. Polymer, 49(8): 1993–2007. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2008.01.027

Bhattarai N, Gunn J and Zhang M, 2010, Chitosan-based hydrogels for controlled, localized drug delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 62(1): 83–99. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2009.07.019

Qiu Y and Park K, 2012, Environment-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 64(Supplement): 49–60. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2012.09.024

Gupta P, Vermani K and Garg S, 2002, Hydrogels: From controlled release to pH-responsive drug delivery. Drug Discovery Today, 7(10): 569–579. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6446(02)02255-9

Lee J M and Yeong W Y, 2016, Design and printing strategies in 3D bioprinting of cell-hydrogels: A review. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 5(22): 2856–2865. http://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201600435

Yue K, Trujillo-de Santiago G, Alvarez M M, et al., 2015, Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels. Biomaterials, 73: 254–271. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.08.045

Serafim A, Tucureanu C, Petre D-G, et al., 2014, One-pot synthesis of superabsorbent hybrid hydrogels based on methacrylamide gelatin and polyacrylamide. Effortless control of hydrogel properties through composition design. New Journal of Chemistry, 38(7): 3112–3126. http://doi.org/10.1039/c4nj00161c

Hennink W E and van Nostrum C F, 2012, Novel crosslinking methods to design hydrogels. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 64(Supplement): 223–236. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2012.09.009

Berger J, Reist M, Mayer J M, et al., 2004, Structure and interactions in covalently and ionically crosslinked chitosan hydrogels for biomedical applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 57(1): 19–34. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0939-6411(03)00161-9

Akhtar M F, Hanif M and Ranjha N M, 2016, Methods of synthesis of hydrogels … A review. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 24(5): 554–559. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2015.03.022

Yu L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, et al., 2009, Mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers with different block ratios leads to an injectable hydrogel. Biomacromolecules, 10(6): 1547–1553. http://doi.org/10.1021/bm900145g

Peppas N A, Bures P, Leobandung W, et al., 2000, Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 50(1): 27–46. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0939-6411(00)00090-4

Qiao M, Chen D, Ma X, et al., 2005, Injectable biodegradable temperature-responsive PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers: Synthesis and effect of copolymer composition on the drug release from the copolymer-based hydrogels. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 294(1–2): 103–112. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2005.01.017

Molina I, Li S, Martinez M B, et al., 2001, Protein release from physically crosslinked hydrogels of the PLA/PEO/PLA triblock copolymer-type. Biomaterials, 22(4): 363–369. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(00)00192-7

He Y, Yang F, Zhao H, et al., 2016, Research on the printability of hydrogels in 3D bioprinting. Scientific Reports, 6: 29977. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep29977

Fu Y and Kao W J, 2010, Drug release kinetics and transport mechanisms of non-degradable and degradable polymeric delivery systems. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, 7(4): 429–444. http://doi.org/10.1517/17425241003602259

Duffy C V, David L and Crouzier T, 2015, Covalently-crosslinked mucin biopolymer hydrogels for sustained drug delivery. Acta Biomaterialia, 20: 51–59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2015.03.024

Schoenmakers R G, van de Wetering P, Elbert D L, et al., 2004, The effect of the linker on the hydrolysis rate of drug-linked ester bonds. Journal of Controlled Release, 95(2): 291–300. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2003.12.009

Shen W, Zhang K, Kornfield J A, et al., 2006, Tuning the erosion rate of artificial protein hydrogels through control of network topology. Nature Materials, 5(2): 153–158. http://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1573

Metters A T, Bowman C N and Anseth K S, 2000, A statistical kinetic model for the bulk degradation of PLA-b-PEG-b-PLA hydrogel networks. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 104(30): 7043–7049. http://doi.org/10.1021/jp000523t

Martens P, Metters A T, Anseth K S, et al., 2001, A generalized bulk-degradation model for hydrogel networks formed from multivinyl cross-linking molecules. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 105(22): 5131–5138. http://doi.org/10.1021/jp004102n

Wischke C, Neffe A T, Steuer S, et al., 2009, Evaluation of a degradable shape-memory polymer network as matrix for controlled drug release. Journal of Controlled Release, 138(3): 243–250. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.05.027

Chen H, Li Y, Liu Y, et al., 2014, Highly pH-sensitive polyurethane exhibiting shape memory and drug release. Polymer Chemistry, 5(17): 5168–5174. http://doi.org/10.1039/C4PY00474D

Wang K, Strandman S and Zhu X X, 2017, A mini review: Shape memory polymers for biomedical applications. Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering, 11(2): 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11705-017-1632-4

Sydney Gladman A, Matsumoto E A, Nuzzo R G, et al., 2016, Biomimetic 4D printing. Nature Materials, 15(4): 413–418. http://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4544

Bakarich S E, Gorkin R III, in het Panhuis M , et al., 2015, 4D printing with mechanically robust, thermally actuating hydrogels. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 36(12): 1211–1217. http://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201500079

Ge Q, Sakhaei A H, Lee H, et al., 2016, Multimaterial 4D printing with tailorable shape memory polymers. Scientific Reports, 6: 31110. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep31110

Gao B, Yang Q, Zhao X, et al., 2016, 4D bioprinting for biomedical applications. Trends in Biotechnology, 34(9): 746–756. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.03.004

Neffe A T, Hanh B D, Steuer S, et al., 2009, Polymer networks combining controlled drug release, biodegradation, and shape memory capability. Advanced Materials, 21(32–33): 3394–3398. http://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200802333

Nagahama K, Ueda Y, Ouchi T, et al., 2009, Biodegradable shape-memory polymers exhibiting sharp thermal transitions and controlled drug release. Biomacromolecules, 10(7): 1789–1794. http://doi.org/10.1021/bm9002078

Kashif M, Yun B M, Lee K S, et al., 2016, Biodegradable shape-memory poly(ε-caprolactone)/polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane nanocomposites: Sustained drug release and hydrolytic degradation. Materials Letters, 166: 125–128. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2015.12.051

Musiał-Kulik M, Kasperczyk J, Smola A, et al., 2014, Double layer paclitaxel delivery systems based on bioresorbable terpolymer with shape memory properties. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 465(1–2): 291–298. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.01.029

Wache H M, Tartakowska D J, Hentrich A, et al., 2003, Development of a polymer stent with shape memory effect as a drug delivery system. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 14(2): 109–112. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022007510352

Xiao Y, Zhou S, Wang L, et al., 2010, Crosslinked poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(sebacic anhydride) composites combining biodegradation, controlled drug release and shape memory effect. Composites Part B: Engineering, 41(7): 537–542. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2010.07.001

Banks J, 2013, Adding value in additive manufacturing: Researchers in the United Kingdom and Europe look to 3D printing for customization. IEEE Pulse, 4(6): 22–26. http://doi.org/10.1109/MPUL.2013.2279617

Goyanes A, Robles Martinez P, Buanz A, et al., 2015, Effect of geometry on drug release from 3D printed tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 494(2): 657–663. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.04.069

Reynolds T D, Mitchell S A and Balwinski K M, 2002, Investigation of the effect of tablet surface area/volume on drug release from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose controlled-release matrix tablets. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 28(4): 457–466. http://doi.org/10.1081/DDC-120003007

Kamaly N, Yameen B, Wu J, et al., 2016, Degradable controlled-release polymers and polymeric nanoparticles: Mechanisms of controlling drug release. Chemical Reviews, 116(4): 2602–2663. http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00346

Lee B K, Yun Y H, Choi J S, et al., 2012, Fabrication of drug-loaded polymer microparticles with arbitrary geometries using a piezoelectric inkjet printing system. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 427(2): 305–310. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.02.011

Khaled S A, Burley J C, Alexander M R, et al., 2014, Desktop 3D printing of controlled release pharmaceutical bilayer tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 461(1–2): 105–111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.11.021

Huang X and Brazel C S, 2001, On the importance and mechanisms of burst release in matrix-controlled drug delivery systems. Journal of Controlled Release, 73(2–3): 121–136. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(01)00248-6

Lin C C and Metters A T, 2006, Hydrogels in controlled release formulations: Network design and mathematical modeling. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 58(12–13): 1379–1408. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2006.09.004

Bailey J M and Haddad W M, 2005, Drug dosing control in clinical pharmacology. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 25(2): 35–51. http://doi.org/10.1109/MCS.2005.1411383

Pietrzak K, Isreb A and Alhnan M A, 2015, A flexible-dose dispenser for immediate and extended release 3D printed tablets. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 96: 380–387. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.07.027

Faralli A, Melander F, Larsen E K U, et al., 2014, Digital drug dosing: Dosing in drug assays by light-defined volumes of hydrogels with embedded drug-loaded nanoparticles. In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE EMBS Micro and Nanotechnology in Medicine Conference.

Khaled S A, Burley J C, Alexander M R, et al., 2015, 3D printing of five-in-one dose combination polypill with defined immediate and sustained release profiles. Journal of Controlled Release, 217: 308–314. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.09.028

Khaled S A, Burley J C, Alexander M R, et al., 2015, 3D printing of tablets containing multiple drugs with defined release profiles. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 494(2): 643–650. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.07.067

Srai J S, Badman C, Krumme M, et al., 2015, Future supply chains enabled by continuous processing-opportunities and challenges May 20–21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 104(3): 840–849. http://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24343

Alomari M, Mohamed F H, Basit A W, et al., 2015, Personalised dosing: Printing a dose of one’s own medicine. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 494(2): 568–577. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.12.006

Gudeman J, Jozwiakowski M, Chollet J, et al., 2013, Potential risks of pharmacy compounding. Drugs in R and D, 13(1): 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40268-013-0005-9




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/ijb.v1i1.119

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Eric Lepowsky, Savas Tasoglu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Recent Articles | About Journal | For Author | Fees | About Whioce

Copyright © Whioce Publishing Pte Ltd. All Rights Reserved.