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Microstereolithography-fabricated microneedles for fluid sampling of histamine-contaminated tuna

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Ryan D. Boehm, Panupong Jaipan, Kai-Hung Yang, Thomas N. Stewart, Roger J. Narayan


A custom-designed microneedle sampling system was prepared using dynamic mask microstereolithography; this sampling system was used for determination of histamine content in fresh, histamine-spiked, and spoiled tuna flesh. Lateral flow (test strip) assays were successfully utilized in the microneedle sampling system to assess histamine content. Good agreement was noted between data obtained from the microneedle sampling system and a commercially available histamine detection kit. A discrepancy was noted in the results from the microneedle sampling system and the commercially available histamine detection kit at low (negative) levels of histamine. There was an improvement in the agreement between the microneedle sampling system and the commercially available histamine detection kit at higher histamine levels. The results, which showed an improvement in the test duration and the amount of reagent needed for histamine detection, indicate the promise of printed microneedle sampling systems for histamine detection in seafood samples and other types of food testing.


microneedles; dynamic mask microstereolithography; histamine; lateral flow; tuna

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Technical data 1: EnvisionTEC E-shell® 200 series, viewed October 28, 2015,

Technical data 2: EnvisionTEC Otoflash post curing light flashing unit, viewed October 28, 2015,

Reveal product information: Reveal® histamine screening test, viewed November 1, 2015,



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