A Perspective on 4D Bioprinting

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Jia An, Chee Kai Chua, Vladimir Mironov


3D bioprinting has been invented for more than a decade. A disruptive progress is still lacking for the field to significantly move forward. Recently, the invention of 4D printing technology may point a way and hence the birth of 4D bioprinting. However, 4D bioprinting is not well defined and appear to have a few distinct early forms. In this article, a personal perspective on the early forms of 4D bioprinting is presented and a definition for 4D bioprinting is proposed.


4D printing; bioprinting; additive manufacturing; rapid prototyping; tissue engineering

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/IJB.2016.01.003


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