Open Journal Systems





Electrospun 3D multi-scale fibrous scaffold for enhanced human dermal fibroblast infiltration

VIEWS - 2670 (Abstract) 641 (PDF)
Wen Shing Leong, Shu Cheng Wu, KeeWoei Ng, Lay Poh Tan

Abstract


Electrospun polymeric nanofibrous scaffold possesses significant potential in the field of tissue engineering due to its extracellular matrix mimicking topographical features that modulate a variety of key cellular activities. However, traditional two dimensional (2D) electrospun scaffolds are generally close-packed fiber mats which prohibit cell infiltration and proliferation. Consequently, the applications of electrospun scaffolds in regenerative medicine is limited. In this study, we detail the use of a needle collector to fabricate 3D electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with multi-scale fiber dimensions. The resultant pore size is 4 times larger than conventional 2D electrospun scaffolds with interweaving micro (3.3 ± 0.6µm) and nano (240 ± 50 nm) fibers. The scaffold was surface modified by grafting with gelatin molecules. It was found that surface modification significantly improved Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) cell infiltration throughout the 3D multi-scale scaffold. Even after an extended culture period of up to 28 days, cell proliferation was well supported in the surface-modified 3D multi-scale scaffold as confirmed by Ki67 staining. Extracellular matrix proteins secreted by the HDFs was evident on the 3D multi-scale PCL scaffold showing promising potential to facilitate tissue regeneration, in particular dermal tissue engineering.


Keywords


tissue engineering; 3D electrospinning scaffold; Human Dermal Fibroblasts; three dimensional scaffold; cell infiltration

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atala A, Thomson J A and Nerem R M, 2011, Principles of Regenerative Medicine, 2nd edn, Elsevier Inc.

Jayarama R V, Radhakrishnan S, Ravichandran R, et al., 2013, Nanofibrous structured biomimetic strategies for skin tissue regeneration. Wound Repair and Regenera-tion, vol.21(1): 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-475X.2012.00861.x

Metcalfe A D and Ferguson M W J, 2007, Tissue engineering of replacement skin: The crossroads of biomaterials, wound healing, embryonic development, stem cells and regeneration. Journal of The Royal Society In-terface, vol.4(14): 413–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2006.0179

Xu C Y, Inai R, Kotaki M, et al., 2004, Aligned biodegradable nanofibrous structure: A potential scaffold for blood vessel engineering. Biomaterials, vol.25(5): 877–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00593-3

Barnes C P, Sell S A, Boland E D, et al., 2007, Nanofiber technology: Designing the next generation of tissue engineering scaffolds. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol.59(14): 1413–1433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2007.04.022

Smith L A and Ma P X, 2004, Nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol.39(3): 125–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2003.12.004

Powell H M, Supp D M and Boyce S T, 2008, Influence of electrospun collagen on wound contraction of engineered skin substitutes. Biomaterials, vol.29(7): 834–843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.10.036

Ayres C E, Jha B S, Sell S A, et al., 2010, Nanotechnology in the design of soft tissue scaffolds: Innovations in structure and function. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, vol.2(1): 20–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wnan.55

Lowery J L, Datta N and Rutledge G C, 2010, Effect of fiber diameter, pore size and seeding method on growth of human dermal fibroblasts in electrospun poly(ɛ-cap-rolactone) fibrous mats. Biomaterials, vol.31(3): 491–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.072

Gelain F, 2008, Novel opportunities and challenges offered by nanobiomaterials in tissue engineering. International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol.3(4): 415–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S3795

Zhong S P, Zhang Y Z and Lim C T, 2012, Fabrication of large pores in electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for cellular infiltration: A review. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol.18(2): 77–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEB.2011.0390

Rnjak-Kovacina J and Weiss A S, 2011, Increasing the pore size of electrospun scaffolds. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol.17(5): 365–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.teb.2011.0235

Shim I K, Jung M R, Kim K H, et al., 2010, Novel three-dimensional scaffolds of poly(L-lactic acid) microfibers using electrospinning and mechanical expansion: Fabrication and bone regeneration. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Bioma-terials, vol.95(1): 150–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.31695

Nam J, Huang Y, Agarwal S, et al., 2007, Improved cellular infiltration in electrospun fiber via engineered porosity. Tissue Engineering, vol.13(9): 2249–2257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.2006.0306

Balguid A, Mol A, van Marion M H, et al., 2009, Tailoring fiber diameter in electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds for optimal cellular infiltration in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering Part A, vol.15(2): 437–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0294

Baker B M, Gee A O, Metter R B, et al., 2008, The potential to improve cell infiltration in composite fiber-aligned electrospun scaffolds by the selective removal of sacrificial fibers. Biomaterials, vol.29(15): 2348–2358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.01.032

Guimaraes A, Martins A, Pinho E D, et al., 2010, Solving cell infiltration limitations of electrospun nanofiber meshes for tissue engineering applications. Nanomedicine (London), vol.5(4): 539–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm.10.31

Simonet M, Schneider O D, Neuenschwander P, et al., 2007, Ultraporous 3D polymer meshes by low-temperature electrospinning: Use of ice crystals as a removable void template. Polymer Engineering and Science, vol.47(12): 2020–2026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pen.20914

Pham Q P, Sharma U and Mikos A G, 2006, Electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) microfiber and multilayer nanofiber/microfiber scaffolds: Characterization of scaffolds and measurement of cellular infiltration. Biomacromolecules, vol.7(10): 2796–2805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm060680j

Soliman S, Pagliari S, Rinaldi A, et al., 2010, Multiscale three-dimensional scaffolds for soft tissue engineering via multimodal electrospinning. Acta Biomaterialia, vol.6(4): 1227–1237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2009.10.051

Moroni L, Hamann D, Schotel R, et al., 2008, 3D fiber-deposited electrospun intergrated scaffolds enhance cartilage tissue formation. Advanced Functional Materials, vol.18(1): 53–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200601158

Kim G, Son J, Park S, et al., 2008, Hybrid process for fabricating 3D hierarchical scaffolds combining rapid prototyping and electrospinning. Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol.29(19): 1577–1581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.200800277

Blakeney B A, Tambralli A, Anderson J M, et al., 2011, Cell infiltration and growth in a low density, uncom-pressed three-dimensional electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. Biomaterials, vol.32(6): 1583–1590. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.10.056

Tzezana R, Zussman E, Levenberg S, 2008, A layered ultraporous scaffold for tissue engineering, created via a hydrospinning method. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, vol.14(4): 281–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.tec.2008.0201

Ahirwal D, Hebraud A, Kadar R, et al., 2013, From self-assembly of electrospun nanofibers to 3D cm thick hierarchical foams. Soft Matter, vol.9(11): 3164–3172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C2SM27543K

Lavery L A, Armstrong D G and Harkless L B, 1996, Classification of diabetic foot wounds. Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, vol.35(6): 528–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1067-2516(96)80125-6

Zhu Y, Gao C, Liu X, et al., 2002, Surface modification of polycaprolactone membrane via aminolysis and biomacromolecule immobilization for promoting cyto-compatibility of human endothelial cells. Biomacromolecules, vol.3(6): 1312–1319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm020074y

ImageJ Download page, n.d., viewed March 31, 2015, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/download.html

Grant P V, Tomlins P E, Mikhalovska L, et al., 2005, Physical characterization of a polycaprolactone tissue scaffold in Surface Chemistry in Biomedical and Environmental Science, Springer, Dordrecht, 215–228.

Tanaka A, Nagate T and Matsuda H, 2005, Acceleration of wound healing by gelatin film dressings with epidermal growth factor. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol.67(9): 909–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.67.909

Bissell M J, Hall H G and Parry G, 1982, How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression? Journal of Theoritical Biology, vol.99(1): 31–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(82)90388-5

Martínez E, Engel E, Planell J A, et al., 2009, Effects of artificial micro- and nano-structured surfaces on cell behaviour. Annals of Anatomy — Anatomischer Anzeiger, vol.191(1): 126–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2008.05.006

Tay C Y, Irvine S A, Boey F Y C, et al., 2011, Micro-/nano-engineered cellular responses for soft tissue engineering and biomedical applications. Small, vol.7(10): 1361–1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201100046

Li H, Wong Y S, Wen F, et al., 2013, Human mesen-chymal stem — cell behaviour on direct laser micropatterned electrospun scaffolds with hierarchical structures. Macromolecular Bioscience, vol.13(3): 299–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mabi.201200318

Tay C Y, Koh C G, Tan N S, et al., 2013, Mechanoregulation of stem cell fate via micro-/nano-scale manipulation for regenerative medicine. Nanomedicine, vol.8(4): 623–638. http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm.13.31

Yeong W Y, Yu H, Lim K P, et al., 2010, Multiscale topological guidance for cell alignment via direct laser writing on biodegradable polymer. Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, vol.16(5): 1011–1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEC.2009.0604

Tang C C, Chen J C, Long Y Z, et al., 2011, Preparation of curled microfibers by electrospinning with tip collector. Chinese Physics Letters, vol.28(5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0256-307X/28/5/056801

Kim H Y, Lee M, Park K J, et al., 2010, Nanopottery: Coiling of electrospun polymer nanofibers. Nano Letters, vol.10(6): 2138–2140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl100824d

Watt F M and Fujiwara H, 2011, Cell-extracellular matrix interactions in normal and diseased skin. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, vol.3(4): a005124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a005124




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18063/IJB.2016.01.002

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Wen Shing Leong, Shu Cheng Wu, KeeWoei Ng, Lay Poh Tan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.