ISSN: 2424-8002 (Online)

ISSN: 2424-7723 (Print)

Journal Abbreviation: Int J Bioprint

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Article Processing Charges (APC): Click here for more details

Publishing Model: Open Access

Journal no: 10P


Table of Contents

Short Communications

by Haijun He, Min Gao, Balázs Illés, Kolos Molnar
491 Views, 106 PDF Downloads, 24 Suppl. File Downloads
Face masks are becoming one of the most useful personal protective equipment with the outbreak of the coronavirus (CoV) pandemic. The entire world is experiencing shortage of disposable masks and melt-blown non-woven fabrics, which is the raw material of the mask filter. Recyclability of the discarded mask is also becoming a big challenge for the environment. Here, we introduce a facile method based on electrospinning and three-dimensional printing to make changeable and biodegradable mask filters. We printed polylactic acid (PLA) polymer struts on a PLA nanofiber web to fabricate a nanoporous filter with a hierarchical structure and transparent look. The transparent look overcomes the threatening appearance of the masks that can be a feasible way of reducing the social trauma caused by the current CoV disease-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigated the effects of nozzle temperature on the optical, mechanical, and morphological and filtration properties of the nanoporous filter.

Review Articles

by Anastasia Shpichka, Polina Bikmulina, Maria Peshkova, Nastasia Kosheleva, Irina Zurina, Ensieh Zahmatkesh, Niloofar Khoshdel-Rad, Marina Lipina, Elena Golubeva, Massoud Vosough, Peter Timashev
590 Views, 83 PDF Downloads

While the number of studies related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is constantly growing, it is essential to provide a framework of modeling viral infections. Therefore, this review aims to describe the background presented by earlier used models for viral studies and an approach to design an “ideal” tissue model for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Due to the previous successful achievements in antiviral research and tissue engineering, combining the emerging techniques such as bioprinting, microfluidics, and organoid formation are considered to be one of the best approaches to form in vitro tissue models. The fabrication of an integrated multi-tissue bioprinted platform tailored for SARS-CoV-2 infection can be a great breakthrough that can help defeat coronavirus disease in 2019.


Review Articles

by Soja Saghar Soman, Sanjairaj Vijayavenkataraman
638 Views, 138 PDF Downloads
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology and advancements in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology enable scientists to reprogram somatic cells to iPSCs and 3D print iPSC-derived organ constructs with native tissue architecture and function. iPSCs and iPSC-derived cells suspended in hydrogels (bioinks) allow to print tissues and organs for downstream medical applications. The bioprinted human tissues and organs are extremely valuable in regenerative medicine as bioprinting of autologous iPSC-derived organs eliminates the risk of immune rejection with organ transplants. Disease modeling and drug screening in bioprinted human tissues will give more precise information on disease mechanisms, drug efficacy, and drug toxicity than experimenting on animal models. Bioprinted iPSC-derived cancer tissues will aid in the study of early cancer development and precision oncology to discover patient-specific drugs. In this review, we present a brief summary of the combined use of two powerful technologies, iPSC technology, and 3D bioprinting in health-care applications.

Review Articles

by Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini, Vishwesh Dikshit, Yi Zhang
434 Views, 68 PDF Downloads

In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing has markedly enhanced the functionality of bioreactors by offering the capability of manufacturing intricate architectures, which changes the way of conducting in vitro biomodeling and bioanalysis. As 3D-printing technologies become increasingly mature, the architecture of 3D-printed bioreactors can be tailored to specific applications using different printing approaches to create an optimal environment for bioreactions. Multiple functional components have been combined into a single bioreactor fabricated by 3D-printing, and this fully functional integrated bioreactor outperforms traditional methods. Notably, several 3D-printed bioreactors systems have demonstrated improved performance in tissue engineering and drug screening due to their 3D cell culture microenvironment with precise spatial control and biological compatibility. Moreover, many microbial bioreactors have also been proposed to address the problems concerning pathogen detection, biofouling, and diagnosis of infectious diseases. This review offers a reasonably comprehensive review of 3D-printed bioreactors for in vitro biological applications. We compare the functions of bioreactors fabricated by various 3D-printing modalities and highlight the benefit of 3D-printed bioreactors compared to traditional methods.


Original Articles

by H. Kursat Celik, Ozkan Kose, Mihaela-Elena Ulmeanu, Allan E.W. Rennie, Thomas N. Abram, Ibrahim Akinci
654 Views, 208 PDF Downloads

During the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, the demand for specific medical equipment such as personal protective equipment has rapidly exceeded the available supply around the world. Specifically, simple medical equipment such as medical gloves, aprons, goggles, surgery masks, and medical face shields have become highly in demand in the health-care sector in the face of this rapidly developing pandemic. This difficult period strengthens the social solidarity to an extent parallel to the escalation of this pandemic. Education and government institutions, commercial and noncommercial organizations and individual homemakers have produced specific medical equipment by means of additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which is the fastest way to create a product, providing their support for urgent demands within the health-care services. Medical face shields have become a popular item to produce, and many design variations and prototypes have been forthcoming. Although AM technology can be used to produce several types of noncommercial equipment, this rapid manufacturing approach is limited by its longer production time as compared to conventional serial/mass production and the high demand. However, most of the individual designer/maker-based face shields are designed with little appreciation of clinical needs and nonergonomic. They also lack of professional product design and are not designed according to AM (Design for AM [DfAM]) principles. Consequently, the production time of up to 4 – 5 h for some products of these designs is needed. Therefore, a lighter, more ergonomic, single frame medical face shield without extra components to assemble would be useful, especially for individual designers/makers and noncommercial producers to increase productivity in a shorter timeframe. In this study, a medical face shield that is competitively lighter, relatively more ergonomic, easy to use, and can be assembled without extra components (such as elastic bands, softening materials, and clips) was designed. The face shield was produced by AM with a relatively shorter production time. Subsequently, finite element analysis-based structural design verification was performed, and a three-dimensional (3D) prototype was produced by an original equipment manufacturer 3D printer (Fused Deposition Modeling). This study demonstrated that an original face shield design with <10 g material usage per single frame was produced in under 45 min of fabrication time. This research also provides a useful product DfAM of simple medical equipment such as face shields through advanced engineering design, simulation, and AM applications as an essential approach to battling coronavirus-like viral pandemics.


Original Articles

by Christian Augusto Silva, Carlos J Cortés-Rodriguez, Jonas Hazur, Supachai Reakasame, Aldo R. Boccaccini
632 Views, 93 PDF Downloads

Biofabrication is a rapidly evolving field whose main goal is the manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden constructs that closely mimic tissues and organs. Despite recent advances on materials and techniques directed toward the achievement of this goal, several aspects such as tissue vascularization and prolonged cell functionality are limiting bench-tobedside translation. Extrusion-based 3D bioprinting has been devised as a promising biofabrication technology to overcome these limitations, due to its versatility and wide availability. Here, we report the development of a triple-layered coaxial nozzle for use in the biomanufacturing of vascular networks and vessels. The design of the coaxial nozzle was first optimized toward guaranteeing high cell viability upon extrusion. This was done with the aid of in silico evaluations and their subsequent experimental validation by investigating the bioprinting of an alginate-based bioink. Results confirmed that the values for pressure distribution predicted by in silico experiments resulted in cell viabilities above 70% and further demonstrated the effect of layer thickness and extrusion pressure on cell viability. Our work paves the way for the rational design of multi-layered coaxial extrusion systems to be used in biofabrication approaches to replicate the very complex structures found in native organs and tissues.


Original Articles

by Aira Matsugaki, Tadaaki Matsuzaka, Ami Murakami, Pan Wang, Takayoshi Nakano
284 Views, 75 PDF Downloads
Although three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques enable the construction of various living tissues and organs, the generation of bone-like oriented microstructures with anisotropic texture remains a challenge. Inside the mineralized bone matrix, osteocytes play mechanosensing roles in an ordered manner with a well-developed lacunar-canaliculi system. Therefore, control of cellular arrangement and dendritic processes is indispensable for construction of artificially controlled 3D bone-mimetic architecture. Herein, we propose an innovative methodology to induce controlled arrangement of osteocyte dendritic processes using the laminated layer method of oriented collagen sheets, combined with a custom-made fluid flow stimuli system. Osteocyte dendritic processes showed elongation depending on the competitive directional relationship between flow and substrate. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the successful construction of the anisotropic bone-mimetic microstructure and further demonstrate that the dendritic process formation in osteocytes can be controlled with selective fluid flow stimuli, specifically by regulating focal adhesion. Our results demonstrate how osteocytes adapt to mechanical stimuli by optimizing the anisotropic maturation of dendritic cell processes.

Original Articles

by Elizabeth G. Bishop, Simon James Leigh
809 Views, 118 PDF Downloads

The global coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has led to an international shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), with traditional supply chains unable to cope with the significant demand leading to critical shortfalls. A number of open and crowdsourcing initiatives have sought to address this shortfall by producing equipment such as protective face shields using additive manufacturing techniques such as fused filament fabrication (FFF). This paper reports the process of designing and manufacturing protective face shields using large-scale additive manufacturing (LSAM) to produce the major thermoplastic components of the face shield. LSAM offers significant advantages over other additive manufacturing technologies in bridge manufacturing scenarios as a true transition between prototypes and mass production techniques such as injection molding. In the context of production of COVID-19 face shields, the ability to produce the optimized components in under 5 min compared to what would typically take 1 – 2 h using another additive manufacturing technologies meant that significant production volume could be achieved rapidly with minimal staffing.


Original Articles

by Justin Jia Yao Tan, Cheng Pau Lee, Michinao Hashimoto
169 Views, 26 PDF Downloads
Gelatin and transglutaminase (TG) ink is increasingly popular in direct ink writing three-dimensional (3D) printing of cellular scaffolds and edible materials. The use of enzymes to crosslink gelatin chains removes the needs for toxic crosslinkers and bypasses undesired side reactions due to the specificity of the enzymes. However, their application in 3D printing remains challenging primarily due to the rapid crosslinking that leads to the short duration of printable time. In this work, we propose the use of gelatin preheated for 7 days to extend the duration of the printing time of the gelatin ink. We first determined the stiffness of freshly prepared gelatin (FG) and preheated gelatin (PG) (5 – 20% w/w) containing 5% w/w TG. We selected gelatin hydrogels made from 7.5% w/w FG and 10% w/w PG that yielded similar stiffness for subsequent studies to determine the duration of the printable time. PG inks exhibited longer time required for gelation and a smaller increase in viscosity with time than FG inks of similar stiffness. Our study suggested the advantage to preheat gelatin to enhance the printability of the ink, which is essential for extrusion-based bioprinting and food printing.


by International Journal of Bioprinting
8 Views, 43 PDF Downloads


by International Journal of Bioprinting
7 Views, 13 PDF Downloads

Author Guidelines

Before submitting for publication, please check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions for submitting a manuscript to our online submission system.

Manuscript Format

Your manuscript should be in MS Word. You are advised to download the template when preparing your submissions to this journal. All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized, with the exception of “e.g.” and “i.e.” If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service.

Types of submission

International Journal of Bioprinting accepts original articles, reviews, letters, editorials, commentaries, perspectives and position papers. Please read this section further for the definition of each type and select the appropriate option in the submission system. Submissions exceeding the suggested requirements, such as total manuscript length, will still be processed for consideration and peer review. However, article processing charges will differ in exceptional cases (e.g. a raw text file exceeding 2MB, etc.) The article processing charge will then be determined on a case-by-case basis.

Original Articles: Original Articles are scientific articles based on original, basic and applied research and/or analysis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 40 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Review Articles: A Review Article summarizes and highlights recent developments and current/future trends of the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Short Communications: Short Communications are short articles that present original and significant findings on a particular problem or novel findings that is anticipated to have significant impact.

The length of a Short Communication, including the Abstract and References, should not exceed 4,000 words. The article should contain Abstract (not more than 150 words), Background, Materials and Method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References, and contain no more than 5 figures and/or tables. Typically, this manuscript type has 15 references.

Perspective Articles: Perspective Articles contain author's personal opinions on a subject/topic. Unlike Reviews, Perspective articles may cover a more specific, narrow part of the field. However, these are still required to uphold the spirit of academia to be objective as well as aim to initiate or further discussions and novel experimental procedures in the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Commentaries: This type of article contains unsolicited commentaries or analysis from reader(s) targeting specific published articles in the journal.

This manuscript type typically has 3 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Clinical Case Studies: A Clinical Case Study presents the details and results from the clinical application of bioprinted products or equivalents on patient cases, and highlights specific instances of interesting phenomena. Submissions will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Methods: Methods articles present new or improved version of experimental methods, tests or procedures pertaining to the field of bioprinting.

This manuscript type typically has 10 tables and figures in total, approximately 30 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors consist of comments from reader(s) about individual articles. These letters must be constructive and contribute to the development of individual articles published or the entire journal. Letters containing new ideas, supporting data or data criticizing the article may be subjected to peer-review (determined on a case-by-case basis by the journal's editorial team). Authors should specify the intended recipient of the letters, i.e. Editor-in-Chief or specific author(s).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figures in total, no more than 10 references, and 2,000 words (inclusive of References). No Abstract is required.

Reports: A Report summarizes the execution of a collaborative research program that is directly related to the advancement of bioprinting. Submissions are usually solicited by the editors.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figure in total, 20 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Position Papers: A Position Paper reflects the official opinion of an organization (e.g. government body, funding agency, etc.).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figure in total, not more than 15 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of References). An Abstract is not required in a Position Paper.

Editorials: An Editorial is a solicited, concise commentary that highlights prominent topics in particular issue. Commonly, the Editorials are the official opinions of the editors of the journal or special issue.

An Editorial should not exceed 1,000 words (inclusive of References). Typically, an Abstract is not required and only one figure/table is allowed.

Book Reviews: Book Reviews provide an overview of new publications (books) from the area of bioprinting. Brief summary, focus, argumentation and impact of the book should be provided.

A Book Review is typically of the length of 400-500 words. No Abstract, References, figures and tables are required.

Extended Conference Papers: An Extended Conference Paper is the conference paper version of an original research article that presents the new findings and in-depth discussion of a certain topic.

The manuscripts that do not have relevance to the Focus and Scope of International Journal of Bioprinting will be rejected.

The requirements for Extended Conference Papers are as follows:

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have at least 30% new material and include a citation to the conference paper. In addition to the 30% new material which is acquired through additional experimentation, analyses and proposal of new ideas or theories, the original content that can be found in the conference paper must be paraphrased, i.e. rewriting the sentences or changing the sentence structure. The 30% new material may also include the clarifications in response to questions raised during the presentation at the conference.

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have a new title and a new abstract that are different from the corresponding title in the conference paper. Nevertheless, the new title and new abstract must retain the ‘motivation, methods and conclusions’ of the paper presented at the conference presentation. More data in the form of tables and figures should be added. The results should be discussed in-depth with more examples and explanations. In this regard, more references will be needed.

-           The conference paper must be cited.

-           The order in which the authors’ names listed on the conference paper can be changed, but no new names can be added to and no existing names can be removed from the author list in the Extended Conference Paper.

-           A PDF copy of the conference paper must be submitted along with the submission of the Extended Conference Paper.

-           The format and style of an Extended Conference Paper is similar to the ones of an Original Article. Refer to the specific requirements of the Original Articles.

Erratum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the journal are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.

Corrigendum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the authors are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.


Cover letter

All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers. A cover letter should contain the following:

  • a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to broad readership
  • any associated accession numbers or DOIs of the corresponding preprint version of the submission if it has been deposited on a preprint server
  • recommendations of up to four academically qualified reviewers (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • exclusion of individuals who might have conflict of interest from reviewing the work (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • a statement that “neither the manuscript nor any significant part of it is under consideration for publication elsewhere or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication of the same work”
  • conflict of interest statement
  • a list of names and email addresses of all co-authors of the work who have already seen and approved the manuscript


The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

List of Authors

The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials along with their affiliations. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. For contact, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must view and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting.


Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 200 words. The purpose of abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5 keywords; please avoid using the same words as those already used in the title, separate terms with a semi-colon (term1; term2; term3).

Section Headings

Please number the section headings (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) in boldface. Likewise, use boldface to identify subheadings too but please distinguish it from major headings using numbers (e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.) Further subsections of subheadings should be differentiated by boldface and italics font with the numbers (1), (2), (3), etc.


The introduction should provide a background that gives a broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It tackles a problem and states its important regarding with the significance of the study. Introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

Materials and Methods

This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough detail to for other investigators to fully replicate the results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail for the reproducibility of the experiments. Informed consent should be obtained from patients or parents before the experiments start and should be mentioned in this section.


Ethics information include IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labelled "Ethics Statement" in the "Methods" section of the manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.


This section can be divided into subheadings and focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.


Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

Conflict of Interest

All authors are required, at the time of submission, to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing (commercial) interest in relation to their submitted manuscript, as consistent with the recommendations from the International Committee of Medical Editors (ICMJE). Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. The disclosure should also include all sources of revenue paid (or promised to be paid) directly to authors or their institution on your behalf over the 36 months before submission of the relevant work. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section.

During submission, the Conflict of Interest statement should be included in both the cover letter and manuscript (beneath the Acknowledgments section).

Authors will be requested to complete ICMJE form for Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest when they are invited to submit a revision. Failure to do return a completed form will result in a delay to editorial and peer review progress. If necessary, the initial disclosure statement provided by the authors will be subject to edits for grammar corrections by the editors. Failure to comply with the conflict of interest disclosure statement requirement may result in rejection of the submissions.


Authors should declare all financial and non-financial support that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript in this section. Financial supports are generally in the form of grants, royalties, consulting fees and others. Examples of non-financial support could include the following: externally-supplied equipment/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, contributions from non-authors, etc.


This section is optional and is for all materials (e.g. advanced technical details) that has been excluded from the main text but remain essential to the readers in understanding the manuscripts. This section is not for supplementary figures. Authors are advised to refer to the section on Supplementary Figures for such submissions.


The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50,000 characters (inclusive of spaces), or approximately 7,000 words.

Nomenclature for genes and proteins

This journal aims to reach researchers all over the globe. Hence, for reviewers’ and readers’ ease in comprehension, authors are highly encouraged to use the appropriate gene and protein nomenclature. Authors may prefer to utilize resources such as


Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as one file. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs), as well as should be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be set against a white background. Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis, etc.) and add captions below the figure, as required. These captions should be numbered (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) in boldface. All figures must have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend, defined as description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. (A), (B), (C), etc.)

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch (dpi) for RBG coloured, 600 dpi for greyscale and 1,200 dpi for line art. Although there is no file-size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting the legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system, if necessary.

The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files, should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

Tables, lists and equations

Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted in the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. For listing items within the main body of the manuscript, please use Roman numbers in parenthesis (e.g. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), etc.).

Supplementary files

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. These materials, figures or additional information are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain ‘suppl. info’. Videos may be included in this section.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. Some examples:

  1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
  2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman[5].
  3. This effect has been widely studied[1–3,7].

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. These should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications, and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis.

E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished)


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section. The EndNote output style of IJB can be downloaded at here.

For the reference list, all authors must be stated. Authors being referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.) and sequenced according to the order they appear as the in-text citations. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s), followed by year of publication, title of publication, abbreviated journal name in italics, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors as the italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning "and others"). If the DOI is available, please include it after the page range. Examples of references for different types of publications are as follows;


Journal article (print) with one to three authors:

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

Journal article (print) with more than three authors:

Gamelin F X, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

Journal article (online) with one to three authors:

Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9.

Journal article (online) with more than three authors:

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen T S S, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.


Book with one to three authors:

Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.

Book with more than three authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry M J, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.

Chapter or article in book

Knowles M S, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.


Preprint article with one to three authors:

Ulgen A, Gurkut O, Li W, 2019, Potential Predictive Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes from a North Cyprus Cohort Analysis. medRxiv.

Preprint article with more than three authors:

Wu S, Sun P, Li R, et al., 2020, Epidemiological Development of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China and Its Forecast. medRxiv.


Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers:

Chang S S, Liaw L and Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.

Conference proceedings (from electronic database):

Wang T, Cook C and Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009 (SENSORCOM-
, 82–85.

Online document with author names:

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf

Online document without author name:

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


Standards Australia Online, 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.

Government report:

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Government report (online):

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,

No author:

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.

Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


Copyright Notice

By default, authors contributing to International Journal of Bioprinting agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. With this license, the authors hold the copyright without restrictions and are allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions as long as the International Journal of Bioprinting is the original publisher of the articles.

Alternatively, the authors may choose to publish their work under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), allowing third parties to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon authors’ work, even commercially, as long as they credit authors for the original creation. Authors may express explicit request to publish under CC BY 4.0 in the Comments for the Editor column beneath the Copyright Notice.

For more information, refer to the journal’s Copyright and License section.


Privacy Statement

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Focus and Scope

International Journal of Bioprinting is an international journal covering the technology, science and clinical application of the broadly defined field of Bioprinting. Bioprinting is defined as the use of 3D printing technology with materials that incorporate viable living cells or biological elements to produce tissue or biotechnological products.

We are interested in the scientific topics spanning all stages of bioprinting process from concept creation to fabrication and beyond. Knowledge generated in these researches must be related to bioprinting.

The journal publishes original research articles on basic and applied research as well as associated social implications of this research. The journal also publishes brief commentaries and reviews. Articles focusing on the practical applications of 3D-printed products are similarly welcome.

Examples of relevant topics include but are not limited to:

Information technologies and basic research

  • Medical scanning and imaging for printable format
  • Data security and validation in medical additive manufacturing
  • Logistic management in bioprinting
  • Mass customization design methodology or platform technology
  • Blueprint for organ printing
  • Automated algorithm for 3D modelling of bioprintable files
  • Research models (e.g. cancer, pre-surgical evaluation, etc.)

Materials and formulation

  • New material and method of preparation
  • Hybrid and composite material system
  • Evaluation technologies for bioprinting process and bioprinted product
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired design and material system
  • Interaction of processing and materials
  • Post-processing of bioprinted medical constructs

Cell source and biotechnology for additive manufacturing

  • Cell source research
  • Large-scale or high throughput cell culture techniques
  • Tissue spheroid research (modelling, analysis, measurement, biological observation, characterization)
  • Interaction of cell-material

3D Bioprinting technologies

  • Bioprinting technologies or 3D printing techniques for direct manipulation of cells and biological elements
  • New printing systems or new printing methodology
  • Optimization methodology 

New design and fabrication paradigm

  • Hybrid approach in medical additive manufacturing
  • Information technologies and software in
  • Architectural design
  • Real time and non-invasive monitoring techniques
  • Maturation techniques of printed construct
  • Bioreactor for printed construct

Applied research purpose & evaluation of 3D printed products

  • Implants and prosthetics
  • Bioprinting
  • Biological tissue model for toxicology testing, drug delivery, drug production-related
  • Scaffold for tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Medical imaging purposes (e.g. 3D-printed probes)
  • Bionic organ
  • Organ printing
  • Personalized drug
  • Biomodels for surgical training and planning
  • Exoskeleton
  • Further optimisation/advantages/limitations
  • Education

Associated social implications

  • Ethics
  • Economic relationships and shifts
  • Policies and regulation
  • Intellectual property (IP-copyright, design protection, patents, and trademarks), licensing
  • Business (e.g. chain supply, management)
  • Environmental impact
  • Community sentiments to 3D-printed products (e.g. healthcare providers, users, etc.)


Peer Review Process

All manuscripts submitted to International Journal of Bioprinting will follow the following procedure:

  • Initial submission is reviewed by in-house editors to ensure adherence to journal policies and for double-blind review
  • Editor-in-chief decides on the manuscript to be sent out for review process and assigns the manuscript to one of the editors according to the particular topic.
  • Editor assigns reviewers from inside the editorial board or outside depending on the topic.
  • After evaluations by the reviewers have been received, the editor-in-chief makes one of the following recommendations: accept, minor revision, major revision, reject and resubmit, and reject.
  • If decision is minor revision, the authors have 7 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • If decision is major revision, the authors have 14 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • Upon resubmission, the same procedure is applied as for the initial submission.
  • Authors may appeal for a rejected submission. Appeal requests must be made in writing to with detailed reasons for the appeal and point by point responses to the reviewers remarks. Decisions on appeals are final without exception.
  • For all manuscripts accepted for publication, the peer review process will be deemed to be completed. The manuscript will proceed to be copyedited, layout edited and proofread before being published online.

Note: You may suggest up to four academically qualified reviewers for consideration. Please insert the current contact details of the reviewer and state the reason(s) for recommendation under the "Comments for the Editor" section. However, please take note that the Editorial team strives to ensure the peer review process is fair and unbiased and hence, there is no guarantee that a recommended reviewer will be approached to perform the peer review.


Publication Frequency



Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.




Call for Papers: Research and Applications of 3D Printing and Bioprinting for Covid-19

Research and Applications of 3D Printing and Bioprinting for Covid-19  
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Invitation for Special Issue Proposals

Posted: 2019-08-06
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