ISSN: 2424-8002 (Online)

ISSN: 2424-7723 (Print)

Journal Abbreviation: Int J Bioprint

Publication Frequency: Quarterly

Article Processing Charges (APC): Click here for more details

Publishing Model: Open Access

Impact Factor: 6.638

Journal no: 10P

(In progress)

Table of Contents

Original Articles

by Ali Zolfagharian, Mohammad Lakhi, Sadegh Ranjbar, Mahdi Bodaghi
341 Views, 120 PDF Downloads

This study introduces a design procedure for improving an individual’s footwear comfort with body weight index and activity requirements by customized three-dimensional (3D)-printed shoe midsole lattice structure. This method guides the selection of customized 3D-printed fabrications incorporating both physical and geometrical properties that meet user demands. The analysis of the lattice effects on minimizing the stress on plantar pressure was performed by initially creating various shoe midsole lattice structures designed. An appropriate common 3D printable material was selected along with validating its viscoelastic properties using finite element analysis. The lattice structure designs were analyzed under various loading conditions to investigate the suitability of the method in fabricating a customized 3D-printed shoe midsole based on the individual’s specifications using a single material with minimum cost, time, and material use.


Original Articles

by Amelia Yilin Lee, Aakanksha Pant, Kanitthamniyom Pojchanun, Cheng Pau Lee, Jia An, Michinao Hashimoto, U-Xuan Tan, Chen Huei Leo, Gladys Wong, Chee Kai Chua, Yi Zhang
276 Views, 64 PDF Downloads, 7 Supp.File Downloads

Three-dimensional food printing offers the possibility of modifying the structural design, nutrition, and texture of food, which may be used for consumers with special dietary requirements such as dysphagic patients. One of the food matrices that can be used for liquid delivery to dysphagic patients is food foams. Foams are widely used in different food products to adjust food density, rheological properties, and texture. Foams allow the food to stay in the mouth for sufficient time to provide hydration while minimizing the danger of choking. Our work studies the foam properties and printability of both egg white foams and eggless foams with a strong focus on their foaming properties, rheological properties, printability, and suitability for dysphagic patients. Food hydrocolloid, xanthan gum (XG), is added to improve foam stability and rheological properties so that the inks are printable. Rheological and syneresis properties of the pre-printed foam inks are examined. The texture profile and microstructure properties are studied post-printing. International dysphagia diet standardization initiative tests are carried out to assess the inks’ potential for dysphagic diets. Inks with XG performed better with minimal water seepage, better foam stability, and excellent printability. This suggests that hydrocolloids lead to more stable food foams that are suitable for 3DFP and safe for hydration delivery to dysphagic patients.

Original Articles

by Alan Avila-Ramírez, Alexander U. Valle-Perez, Hepi Hari Susapto, Rosario Perez-Pedroza, Giuseppina R. Briola, Abdulelah Alrashoudi, Zainab Khan, Panagiotis Bilalis, Charlotte Hauser
403 Views, 58 PDF Downloads, 6 Supp.File Downloads

 The development of three-dimensional (3D)-printable inks is essential for several applications, from industrial manufacturing to novel applications for biomedical engineering. Remarkably, biomaterials for tissue engineering applications can be expanded to other new horizons; for instance, restoration of rigid living systems as coral reefs is an emergent need derived from recent issues from climate change. The coral reefs have been endangered, which can be observed in the increasing bleaching around the world. Very few studies report eco-friendly inks for matter since most conventional approaches require synthetic polymer, which at some point could be a pollutant depending on the material. Therefore, there is an unmet need for cost-effective formulations from eco-friendly materials for 3D manufacturing to develop carbonate-based inks for coral reef restoration. Our value proposition derives from technologies developed for regenerative medicine, commonly applied for human tissues like bone and cartilage. In our case, we created a novel biomaterial formulation from biopolymers such as gelatin methacrylate, poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate), alginate, and gelatin as scaffold and binder for the calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite bioceramics needed to mimic the structure of rigid structures. This project presents evidence from 2D/3D manufacturing, chemical, mechanical, and biological characterization, which supports the hypothesis of its utility to aid in the fight to counteract the coral bleaching that affects all the marine ecosystem, primarily when this is supported by solid research in biomaterials science used for living systems, it can extend tissue engineering into new approaches in different domains such as environmental or marine sciences.

Original Articles

by Abdulelah A. Alrashoudi, Hamed I. Albalawi, Ali H. Aldoukhi, Manola Moretti, Panayiotis Bilalis, Malak Abedalthagafi, Charlotte Hauser
119 Views, 28 PDF Downloads, 1 Supp.File Downloads, 32 Supp. File (Video 1) Downloads

 The development of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) using three-dimensional (3D) printing and bioprinting technologies can enhance and accelerate the optimization process of the fabrication. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to investigate methods to speed up the developing process of a LFIA as a tool for community screening. To achieve this goal, an in-house developed robotic arm and microfluidic pumps were used to print the proteins during the development of the test. 3D printing technologies were used to design and print the housing unit for the testing strip. The proposed design was made by taking into consideration the environmental impact of this disposable medical device.

Original Articles

by Ye Li, Kegong Xie, Chong Wang, Chengliang Yang, Ke Huang, Feng Li, Chuanchuan Zheng, Jian Chen, Shujun Dong, Guangfeng Deng, Gege Huang, Qiaoyan Lu, Jia Liu, Kai Li, Yujin Tang, Liqiang Wang
106 Views, 14 PDF Downloads

The rapid development of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering strongly relies on the fabrication of advanced scaffolds and the use of newly discovered functional drugs. As the creation of new drugs and their clinical approval often cost a long time and billions of U.S. dollars, producing scaffolds loaded with repositioned conventional drugs whose biosafety has been verified clinically to treat critical-sized bone defect has gained increasing attention. Carfilzomib (CFZ), an approved clinical proteasome inhibitor with a much fewer side effects, is used to replace bortezomib to treat multiple myeloma. It is also reported that CFZ could enhance the activity of alkaline phosphatase and increase the expression of osteogenic transcription factors. With the above consideration, in this study, a porous CFZ/β-tricalcium phosphate/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (designated as “cytidine triphosphate [CTP]”) was produced through cryogenic three-dimensional (3D) printing. The hierarchically porous CTP scaffolds were mechanically similar to human cancellous bone and can provide a sustained CFZ release. The implantation of CTP scaffolds into critical-sized rabbit radius bone defects improved the growth of new blood vessels and significantly promoted new bone formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows that CFZ-loaded scaffolds could treat nonunion of bone defect by promoting osteogenesis and angiogenesis while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our results suggest that the loading of repositioned drugs with effective osteogenesis capability in advanced bone tissue engineering scaffold is a promising way to treat critical sized defects of a long bone.


Original Articles

by Yuecheng Cui, Ronghua Jin, Yifan Zhang, Meirong Yu, Yang Zhou, Li-Qun Wang
126 Views, 15 PDF Downloads, 0 Supp.File Downloads

 The hydrogel formed by polyethylene glycol-aliphatic polyester block copolymers is an ideal bioink and biomaterial ink for three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting because of its unique temperature sensitivity, mild gelation process, good biocompatibility, and biodegradability. However, the gel forming mechanism based only on hydrophilic-hydrophobic interaction renders the stability and mechanical strength of the formed hydrogels insufficient, and cannot meet the requirements of extrusion 3D printing. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), which is a kind of rigid, hydrophilic, and biocompatible nanomaterial, were introduced to enhance the hydrogels so as to meet the requirements of extrusion 3D printing. First, a series of poly(ε-caprolactone/lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone/ lactide) (PCLA-PEG-PCLA) triblock copolymers with different molecular weights were prepared. The thermodynamic and rheological properties of CNC-enhanced hydrogels were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CNC significantly improved the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the hydrogels, and within a certain range, the enhancement effect was directly proportional to the concentration of CNC. More importantly, the PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogels enhanced by CNC could be extruded and printed through temperature regulation. The printed objects had high resolution and fidelity with effectively maintained structure. Moreover, the hydrogels have good biocompatibility with a high cell viability. Therefore, this is a simple and effective strategy. The addition of the hydrophilic rigid nanoparticles such as CNC improves the mechanical properties of the soft hydrogels which made it able to meet the requirements of 3D bioprinting.

Original Articles

by Xiao Zhang, Yang Liu, Qiang Zuo, Qingyun Wang, Zuxi Li, Kai Yan, Tao Yuan, Yi Zhang, Kai Shen, Rui Xie, Weimin Fan
66 Views, 14 PDF Downloads, 2 Supp.File Downloads

Recently, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology is becoming an appealing approach for osteochondral repair. However, it is challenging to develop a bilayered scaffold with anisotropic structural properties to mimic a native osteochondral tissue. Herein, we developed a bioink consisting of decellularized extracellular matrix and silk fibroin to print the bilayered scaffold. The bilayered scaffold mimics the natural osteochondral tissue by controlling the composition, mechanical properties, and growth factor release in each layer of the scaffold. The in vitro results show that each layer of scaffolds had a suitable mechanical strength and degradation rate. Furthermore, the scaffolds encapsulating transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) can act as a controlled release system and promote directed differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, the in vivo experiments suggested that the scaffolds loaded with growth factors promoted osteochondral regeneration in the rabbit knee joint model. Consequently, the biomimetic bilayered scaffold loaded with TGF-β and BMP-2 would be a promising strategy for osteochondral repair.

Review Articles

by Ying Lu, Jianbo Song, Xiaohong Yao, Meiwen An, Qinying Shi, Xiaobo Huang
14 Views, 2 PDF Downloads

Bolus is a kind of auxiliary device used in radiotherapy for the treatment of superficial lesions such as skin cancer. It is commonly used to increase skin dose and overcome the skin-sparing effect. Despite the availability of various commercial boluses, there is currently no bolus that can form full contact with irregular surface of patients’ skin, and incomplete contact would result in air gaps. The resulting air gaps can reduce the surface radiation dose, leading to a discrepancy between the delivered dose and planned dose. To avoid this limitation, the customized bolus processed by three-dimensional (3D) printing holds tremendous potential for making radiotherapy more efficient than ever before. This review mainly summarized the recent development of polymers used for processing bolus, 3D printing technologies suitable for polymers, and customization of 3D printing bolus. An ideal material for customizing bolus should not only have the feature of 3D printability for customization, but also possess radiotherapy adjuvant performance as well as other multiple compound properties, including tissue equivalence, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, and antiphlogosis.


Author Guidelines

Before submitting for publication, please check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions for submitting a manuscript to our online submission system.

Manuscript Format

Your manuscript should be in MS Word. You are advised to download the template when preparing your submissions to this journal. All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized, with the exception of “e.g.” and “i.e.” If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service.

Types of submission

International Journal of Bioprinting accepts original articles, reviews, letters, editorials, commentaries, perspectives and position papers. Please read this section further for the definition of each type and select the appropriate option in the submission system. Submissions exceeding the suggested requirements, such as total manuscript length, will still be processed for consideration and peer review. However, article processing charges will differ in exceptional cases (e.g. a raw text file exceeding 2MB, etc.) The article processing charge will then be determined on a case-by-case basis.

Original Articles: Original Articles are scientific articles based on original, basic and applied research and/or analysis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 40 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Review Articles: A Review Article summarizes and highlights recent developments and current/future trends of the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Short Communications: Short Communications are short articles that present original and significant findings on a particular problem or novel findings that is anticipated to have significant impact.

The length of a Short Communication, including the Abstract and References, should not exceed 4,000 words. The article should contain Abstract (not more than 150 words), Background, Materials and Method, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References, and contain no more than 5 figures and/or tables. Typically, this manuscript type has 15 references.

Perspective Articles: Perspective Articles contain author's personal opinions on a subject/topic. Unlike Reviews, Perspective articles may cover a more specific, narrow part of the field. However, these are still required to uphold the spirit of academia to be objective as well as aim to initiate or further discussions and novel experimental procedures in the field.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 70 references, and 7,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Commentaries: This type of article contains unsolicited commentaries or analysis from reader(s) targeting specific published articles in the journal.

This manuscript type typically has 3 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Clinical Case Studies: A Clinical Case Study presents the details and results from the clinical application of bioprinted products or equivalents on patient cases, and highlights specific instances of interesting phenomena. Submissions will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figures in total, approximately 20 references, and 3,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Methods: Methods articles present new or improved version of experimental methods, tests or procedures pertaining to the field of bioprinting.

This manuscript type typically has 10 tables and figures in total, approximately 30 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors: Letters to the Editor-in-Chief/Authors consist of comments from reader(s) about individual articles. These letters must be constructive and contribute to the development of individual articles published or the entire journal. Letters containing new ideas, supporting data or data criticizing the article may be subjected to peer-review (determined on a case-by-case basis by the journal's editorial team). Authors should specify the intended recipient of the letters, i.e. Editor-in-Chief or specific author(s).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figures in total, no more than 10 references, and 2,000 words (inclusive of References). No Abstract is required.

Reports: A Report summarizes the execution of a collaborative research program that is directly related to the advancement of bioprinting. Submissions are usually solicited by the editors.

This manuscript type typically has 5 tables and figure in total, 20 references, and 5,000 words (inclusive of Abstract and References).

Position Papers: A Position Paper reflects the official opinion of an organization (e.g. government body, funding agency, etc.).

This manuscript type typically has 2 tables and figure in total, not more than 15 references, and 3,500 words (inclusive of References). An Abstract is not required in a Position Paper.

Editorials: An Editorial is a solicited, concise commentary that highlights prominent topics in particular issue. Commonly, the Editorials are the official opinions of the editors of the journal or special issue.

An Editorial should not exceed 1,000 words (inclusive of References). Typically, an Abstract is not required and only one figure/table is allowed.

Book Reviews: Book Reviews provide an overview of new publications (books) from the area of bioprinting. Brief summary, focus, argumentation and impact of the book should be provided.

A Book Review is typically of the length of 400-500 words. No Abstract, References, figures and tables are required.

Extended Conference Papers: An Extended Conference Paper is the conference paper version of an original research article that presents the new findings and in-depth discussion of a certain topic.

The manuscripts that do not have relevance to the Focus and Scope of International Journal of Bioprinting will be rejected.

The requirements for Extended Conference Papers are as follows:

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have at least 30% new material and include a citation to the conference paper. In addition to the 30% new material which is acquired through additional experimentation, analyses and proposal of new ideas or theories, the original content that can be found in the conference paper must be paraphrased, i.e. rewriting the sentences or changing the sentence structure. The 30% new material may also include the clarifications in response to questions raised during the presentation at the conference.

-           The Extended Conference Paper must have a new title and a new abstract that are different from the corresponding title in the conference paper. Nevertheless, the new title and new abstract must retain the ‘motivation, methods and conclusions’ of the paper presented at the conference presentation. More data in the form of tables and figures should be added. The results should be discussed in-depth with more examples and explanations. In this regard, more references will be needed.

-           The conference paper must be cited.

-           The order in which the authors’ names listed on the conference paper can be changed, but no new names can be added to and no existing names can be removed from the author list in the Extended Conference Paper.

-           A PDF copy of the conference paper must be submitted along with the submission of the Extended Conference Paper.

-           The format and style of an Extended Conference Paper is similar to the ones of an Original Article. Refer to the specific requirements of the Original Articles.

Erratum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the journal are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.

Corrigendum: Authors should contact the editors of International Journal of Bioprinting ( if certain errors made by the authors are found. The editors will evaluate the impact of the errors and decide on the appropriate course of action. Any corrections to a paper are published at the sole discretion of the editors.


Cover letter

All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers. A cover letter should contain the following:

  • a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to broad readership
  • any associated accession numbers or DOIs of the corresponding preprint version of the submission if it has been deposited on a preprint server
  • recommendations of up to four academically qualified reviewers (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • exclusion of individuals who might have conflict of interest from reviewing the work (including name, email address and affiliation)
  • a statement that “neither the manuscript nor any significant part of it is under consideration for publication elsewhere or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication of the same work”
  • conflict of interest statement
  • a list of names and email addresses of all co-authors of the work who have already seen and approved the manuscript


The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper’s significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

List of Authors

The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials along with their affiliations. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, state, postal code, and country. For contact, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must view and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting.


Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 200 words. The purpose of abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5 keywords; please avoid using the same words as those already used in the title, separate terms with a semi-colon (term1; term2; term3).

Section Headings

Please number the section headings (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) in boldface. Likewise, use boldface to identify subheadings too but please distinguish it from major headings using numbers (e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, etc.) Further subsections of subheadings should be differentiated by boldface and italics font with the numbers (1), (2), (3), etc.


The introduction should provide a background that gives a broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It tackles a problem and states its important regarding with the significance of the study. Introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

Materials and Methods

This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough detail to for other investigators to fully replicate the results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail for the reproducibility of the experiments. Informed consent should be obtained from patients or parents before the experiments start and should be mentioned in this section.


Ethics information include IACUC permit numbers and/or IRB name, if applicable. This information should be included in a subheading labelled "Ethics Statement" in the "Methods" section of the manuscript file, in as much detail as possible.


This section can be divided into subheadings and focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.


Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

Conflict of Interest

All authors are required, at the time of submission, to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing (commercial) interest in relation to their submitted manuscript, as consistent with the recommendations from the International Committee of Medical Editors (ICMJE). Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. The disclosure should also include all sources of revenue paid (or promised to be paid) directly to authors or their institution on your behalf over the 36 months before submission of the relevant work. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section.

During submission, the Conflict of Interest statement should be included in both the cover letter and manuscript (beneath the Acknowledgments section).

Authors will be requested to complete ICMJE form for Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest when they are invited to submit a revision. Failure to do return a completed form will result in a delay to editorial and peer review progress. If necessary, the initial disclosure statement provided by the authors will be subject to edits for grammar corrections by the editors. Failure to comply with the conflict of interest disclosure statement requirement may result in rejection of the submissions.


Authors should declare all financial and non-financial support that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript in this section. Financial supports are generally in the form of grants, royalties, consulting fees and others. Examples of non-financial support could include the following: externally-supplied equipment/biological sources, writing assistance, administrative support, contributions from non-authors, etc.


This section is optional and is for all materials (e.g. advanced technical details) that has been excluded from the main text but remain essential to the readers in understanding the manuscripts. This section is not for supplementary figures. Authors are advised to refer to the section on Supplementary Figures for such submissions.


The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word or Latex. The length of the manuscript cannot be more than 50,000 characters (inclusive of spaces), or approximately 7,000 words.

Nomenclature for genes and proteins

This journal aims to reach researchers all over the globe. Hence, for reviewers’ and readers’ ease in comprehension, authors are highly encouraged to use the appropriate gene and protein nomenclature. Authors may prefer to utilize resources such as


Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as one file. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs), as well as should be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). It should also be set against a white background. Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis, etc.) and add captions below the figure, as required. These captions should be numbered (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) in boldface. All figures must have a brief title (also known as caption) that describes the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend, defined as description of each panel. Please identify each panel with uppercase letters in parenthesis (e.g. (A), (B), (C), etc.)

The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are TIFF or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Optimal resolutions preferred are 300 dots per inch (dpi) for RBG coloured, 600 dpi for greyscale and 1,200 dpi for line art. Although there is no file-size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting the legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system, if necessary.

The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files, should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

Tables, lists and equations

Tables created using Microsoft Word table function are preferred. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted in the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers. For listing items within the main body of the manuscript, please use Roman numbers in parenthesis (e.g. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), etc.).

Supplementary files

This section is optional and contains all materials and figures that have been excluded from the entire manuscript. These materials, figures or additional information are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers’ understanding of the manuscript’s main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain ‘suppl. info’. Videos may be included in this section.

In-text citations

Reference citations in the text should be numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. Some examples:

  1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
  2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman[5].
  3. This effect has been widely studied[1–3,7].

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. These should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications, and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis.

E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished)


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section. The EndNote output style of IJB can be downloaded at here.

For the reference list, all authors must be stated. Authors being referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.) and sequenced according to the order they appear as the in-text citations. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s), followed by year of publication, title of publication, abbreviated journal name in italics, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors as the italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning "and others"). If the DOI is available, please include it after the page range. Examples of references for different types of publications are as follows;


Journal article (print) with one to three authors:

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.

Journal article (print) with more than three authors:

Gamelin F X, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.

Journal article (online) with one to three authors:

Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9.

Journal article (online) with more than three authors:

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen T S S, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939.


Book with one to three authors:

Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.

Book with more than three authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry M J, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.

Chapter or article in book

Knowles M S, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.


Preprint article with one to three authors:

Ulgen A, Gurkut O, Li W, 2019, Potential Predictive Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes from a North Cyprus Cohort Analysis. medRxiv.

Preprint article with more than three authors:

Wu S, Sun P, Li R, et al., 2020, Epidemiological Development of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China and Its Forecast. medRxiv.


Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers:

Chang S S, Liaw L and Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.

Conference proceedings (from electronic database):

Wang T, Cook C and Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009 (SENSORCOM-
, 82–85.

Online document with author names:

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf

Online document without author name:

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


Standards Australia Online, 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.

Government report:

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Government report (online):

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,

No author:

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.

Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


Copyright Notice


The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.



NOTE: Starting from Volume 7 Issue 3 (2021), all articles published by International Journal of Bioprinting will be licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). In order to allow unrestricted reuse of article content and remove the barriers of mining article content for research, the new commercial CC BY 4.0 license will replace the default Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) that has been in use since the inception of the journal.

International Journal of Bioprinting publishes accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by International Journal of Bioprinting agree to have the CC BY 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for any purpose, including commercial use. As long as the author and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute, reuse and transform the content.

For more information, refer to the journal’s Copyright and License section.


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Focus and Scope

International Journal of Bioprinting is an international journal covering the technology, science and clinical application of the broadly defined field of Bioprinting. Bioprinting is defined as the use of 3D printing technology with materials that incorporate viable living cells or biological elements to produce tissue or biotechnological products.

We are interested in the scientific topics spanning all stages of bioprinting process from concept creation to fabrication and beyond. Knowledge generated in these researches must be related to bioprinting.

The journal publishes original research articles on basic and applied research as well as associated social implications of this research. The journal also publishes brief commentaries and reviews. Articles focusing on the practical applications of 3D-printed products are similarly welcome.

Examples of relevant topics include but are not limited to:

Information technologies and basic research

  • Medical scanning and imaging for printable format
  • Data security and validation in medical additive manufacturing
  • Logistic management in bioprinting
  • Mass customization design methodology or platform technology
  • Blueprint for organ printing
  • Automated algorithm for 3D modelling of bioprintable files
  • Research models (e.g. cancer, pre-surgical evaluation, etc.)

Materials and formulation

  • New material and method of preparation
  • Hybrid and composite material system
  • Evaluation technologies for bioprinting process and bioprinted product
  • Biomimetic and bioinspired design and material system
  • Interaction of processing and materials
  • Post-processing of bioprinted medical constructs

Cell source and biotechnology for additive manufacturing

  • Cell source research
  • Large-scale or high throughput cell culture techniques
  • Tissue spheroid research (modelling, analysis, measurement, biological observation, characterization)
  • Interaction of cell-material

3D Bioprinting technologies

  • Bioprinting technologies or 3D printing techniques for direct manipulation of cells and biological elements
  • New printing systems or new printing methodology
  • Optimization methodology 

New design and fabrication paradigm

  • Hybrid approach in medical additive manufacturing
  • Information technologies and software in
  • Architectural design
  • Real time and non-invasive monitoring techniques
  • Maturation techniques of printed construct
  • Bioreactor for printed construct

Applied research purpose & evaluation of 3D printed products

  • Implants and prosthetics
  • Bioprinting
  • Biological tissue model for toxicology testing, drug delivery, drug production-related
  • Scaffold for tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Medical imaging purposes (e.g. 3D-printed probes)
  • Bionic organ
  • Organ printing
  • Personalized drug
  • Biomodels for surgical training and planning
  • Exoskeleton
  • Further optimisation/advantages/limitations
  • Education

Associated social implications

  • Ethics
  • Economic relationships and shifts
  • Policies and regulation
  • Intellectual property (IP-copyright, design protection, patents, and trademarks), licensing
  • Business (e.g. chain supply, management)
  • Environmental impact
  • Community sentiments to 3D-printed products (e.g. healthcare providers, users, etc.)


Peer Review Process

All manuscripts submitted to International Journal of Bioprinting will follow the following procedure:

  • Initial submission is reviewed by in-house editors to ensure adherence to journal policies and for double-blind review
  • Editor-in-chief decides on the manuscript to be sent out for review process and assigns the manuscript to one of the editors according to the particular topic.
  • Editor assigns reviewers from inside the editorial board or outside depending on the topic.
  • After evaluations by the reviewers have been received, the editor-in-chief makes one of the following recommendations: accept, minor revision, major revision, reject and resubmit, and reject.
  • If decision is minor revision, the authors have 7 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • If decision is major revision, the authors have 14 days to resubmit the revised manuscript.
  • Upon resubmission, the same procedure is applied as for the initial submission.
  • Authors may appeal for a rejected submission. Appeal requests must be made in writing to with detailed reasons for the appeal and point by point responses to the reviewers remarks. Decisions on appeals are final without exception.
  • For all manuscripts accepted for publication, the peer review process will be deemed to be completed. The manuscript will proceed to be copyedited, layout edited and proofread before being published online.

Note: You may suggest up to four academically qualified reviewers for consideration. Please insert the current contact details of the reviewer and state the reason(s) for recommendation under the "Comments for the Editor" section. However, please take note that the Editorial team strives to ensure the peer review process is fair and unbiased and hence, there is no guarantee that a recommended reviewer will be approached to perform the peer review.


Publication Frequency



Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.




Switching to Manuscript Central Online Submission System


Starting September 2021, International Journal of Bioprinting (IJB) will be using dual online submission systems until clearing all items in the OJS system, i.e., Manuscript CentralTM and OJS online submission systems. Authors are advised to make new submissions via the new submission system – Manuscript CentralTM. All subsequent revisions for papers submitted via this new system will be handled entirely on the same system. 

The existing submissions will be handled in the current OJS system until a final editorial decision is made. In other words, subsequent revisions for these papers need to be submitted via the same OJS system. Authors who want to submit to Special Issue/Special Section titled 3D Printing and Bioprinting for the Future of Healthcare should make new submissions via the OJS portal. Any irrelevant new submissions made through the OJS system will be removed, and the authors are advised to submit them via the Manuscript CentralTM portal.

Go to Online Submission and choose the correct portal for making submissions:



Manuscript CentralTM

To make new submissions


(1) To submit revisions of existing papers in OJS

(2) To submit new submissions to Special Issue/Special Section titled 3D Printing and Bioprinting for the Future of Healthcare


The application of the dual online submission system will continue for a couple of months, and we will switch to using Manuscript CentralTM completely upon clearing all items in the OJS system.

Thank you.

Posted: 2021-09-08

Special Section “3D Printing and Bioprinting for the Future of Healthcare”: - Call for Papers


3D printing and bioprinting is a multidisciplinary technique involving design, biomaterials, life science, and medicine. This emerging field is creating an enormous opportunity for the future of healthcare. Applications of 3D printing and bioprinting in medicine are expanding at an accelerated pace, demonstrating advanced solutions in biomedical and biotechnology industry. These include new design of implant, streamlined fabrication of personalized medical product, and development of biomimetic bioinks towards complex tissues and organs.

Beyond creation, 3D printing and bioprinting also impact the delivery of future healthcare solution by capitalizing on the digital nature of the technology. New regulatory paradigm and healthcare logistics will be formulated to meet the demand of 3D printed medical devices or organs.

Posted: 2021-07-08 More...

Change of Creative Commons License


Starting from Volume 7 Issue 3 (2021), International Journal of Bioprinting will publish accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by International Journal of Bioprinting agree to have the CC BY 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for any purpose, including commercial use. As long as the author and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute, reuse and transform the content.

In order to fully implement Whioce Publishing’s Open Access policy, the Publisher decides to replace the original Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) with the commercial CC BY 4.0 license to ensure that the article content can be mined for research without barriers and allow greater freedom in re-using the article content.

Posted: 2021-02-19
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